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Grammar of Buddhist Chinese

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ā ī ū
ñ
ś ź
š č ǰ γ    
Note on the transliteration:
The transliteration system of the BP/TLB is based on the Unicode/UTF-8 system. However, there may be difficulties with some of the letters – particularly on PC/Windows-based systems, but not so much on the Mac. We have chosen the most accepted older and traditional systems of transliteration against, e.g, Wylie for Tibetan, since with Unicode it is possible, in Sanskrit and Tibetan, etc., to represent one sound with one letter in almost all the cases (excepting Sanskrit and Tibetan aspirated letters, and Tibetan tsa, tsha, dza). We thus do not use the Wylie system which widely employs two letters for one sound (ng, ny, sh, zh etc.).
 
Important:
We ask you in particular to note the use of the ’ apostrophe and not the ' representing the avagrāha in Sanskrit, and most important the ’a-chuṅ in Tibetan. On the Mac the ’ is Alt-M.
 
If you cannot find the letters on your key-board, you may click on the link "Diacritica" to access it for your search.

Translator Chinese (A.D. 1018-1058)

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Click to Expand/Collapse Option遍 biàn
Click to Expand/Collapse Option當 dāng
Click to Expand/Collapse Option復 fù
Click to Expand/Collapse Option今 jīn
Click to Expand/Collapse Option共 gòng
Click to Expand/Collapse Option故 gù
Click to Expand/Collapse Option何 hé
Click to Expand/Collapse Option和 hé
Click to Expand/Collapse Option令 lìng
Click to Expand/Collapse Option乃至 nǎi zhì
Click to Expand/Collapse Option如 rú
Click to Expand/Collapse Option若 ruò
Click to Expand/Collapse Option若…若 ruò...ruò
Click to Expand/Collapse Option若…者 ruò…zhě
Click to Expand/Collapse Option隨 suí
Click to Expand/Collapse Option是 shì
Click to Expand/Collapse Option屬 shǔ
Click to Expand/Collapse Option所 suǒ
Click to Expand/Collapse Option爲 wéi
Click to Expand/Collapse Option爲 wèi
Click to Expand/Collapse Option已 yǐ
Click to Expand/Collapse Option以 yǐ
Click to Expand/Collapse Option亦 yì
Click to Expand/Collapse Option異 yì
Click to Expand/Collapse Option因 yīn
Click to Expand/Collapse Option應 yīng
Click to Expand/Collapse Option由 yóu
Click to Expand/Collapse Option於 yú
Click to Expand/Collapse Option於…中 yú zhōng
Click to Expand/Collapse Option與 yǔ
Click to Expand/Collapse Option圓 yuán
Click to Expand/Collapse Option在 zài
Click to Expand/Collapse Option在…中 zài zhōng
Click to Expand/Collapse Option雜 zá
Click to Expand/Collapse Option增上 zēng shàng
Click to Expand/Collapse Option者 zhě
Click to Expand/Collapse Option正 zhèng
Click to Expand/Collapse Option之 zhī
Click to Expand/Collapse Option中 zhōng
Click to Expand/Collapse Option諸 zhū
Click to Expand/Collapse Option性 xìng
佛典漢語語法 
Lexical comparanda 
Grammar of Buddhist Chinese 
遍 biàn 
遍 biàn: 
pref: 遍知 aparijānann (義); 
當 dāng 
當 dāng: bear, accept, undertake; just; one should CTP 
grdv: 當發露 āviṣkartavyā (義); 當説 vaktavyā (真)(玄);
fut: 我當說 pravakṣyāmi (真); pravakṣyāmi 我當說者 (玄); 當説 upapādayiṣyāmaḥ (真); 當辯 upapādayiṣyāmaḥ(玄); 
復 fù 
復 fù: 
indec: 復 punar (義); 若復苾芻 yaḥ punar bhikṣur (義); 
今 jīn 
今 jīn: 
indec: 今 tatra (義); 今 etad (義); 
共 gòng 
共 gòng: 
pref: 共住 saṃvāsaṃ bhogaṃ (義); 
故 gù 
故 gù: 故 ancient, old; reason, because CTP 
inst: 默然故 tūṣṇīṃbhāvena (義);
abl: 是故 tasmāt (義); 默然故 yasmāt tūṣṇīm (義); 續故 santateḥ (真,玄);
ger: 故心 saṃcintya (義); 
何 hé 
何 hé: 
abl: 何以故。義不相(26)應故 arthāyogāt (真); 
和 hé 
和 hé: 
pref: 和攝 saṃgraha (真) 
令 lìng 
令 lìng: command, order; 'commandant', magistrate; allow, cause CTP 
caus: 勸令更食 khādanīyabhojanīyenātyarthaṃ pravārayet (義) 
乃至 nǎi zhì 
乃至 nǎi zhì: 
indec: 乃至三問 yāvat trir apy (義); 乃至共傍生 antatas tiryagyonigatayāpi sārdhaṃ 
如 rú 
如 rú: 
indec: 如 yathāpi (義); 如…亦如是; 如前後亦如是 yathā pūrvaṃ tathā paścāt(義);
如是 evam (義); 
若 ruò (see also 若…者) 
若 ruò (see also 若…者): if, supposing, assuming; similar CTP 
rel. pron: 復苾芻與諸苾芻同得學處。不捨學處。學羸不自説作不淨行。兩交會法。乃至共傍生。苾芻亦得波羅市迦不應共住 yaḥ punar bhikṣur bhikṣūṇāṃ śikṣāsājīvasamāpannaḥ śikṣām apratyākhyāya śikṣādaurbalyam anāviṣkṛtyābrahmacaryaṃ maithunaṃ dharmaṃ pratisevate antatas tiryagyonigatayāpi sārdhaṃ, ayam api bhikṣuḥ pārājiko bhavaty asaṃvāsyaḥ (義);復苾芻。若在聚落。若空閑處。他不與物以盜心取。如是盜時。若王若大臣。若捉若殺。若縛驅擯。若呵責言。咄男子。汝是賊癡無所知。作如是盜。如是盜者。苾芻亦得波羅市迦不應共住。yaḥ punar bhikṣur grāmagatam araṇyagataṃ vā pareṣāṃ adattaṃ steyasaṃkh[yātam ādadī]ta yadrūpeṇādattādānena rājā vainaṃ gṛhītvā rājamātro vā hanyād vā saṃbadhnīyād vā pravāsayed vā evaṃ cainaṃ vadet* -- tvaṃ bhoḥ puruṣa cauro ’si bālo ’si mūḍho ’si steyo ’sīty evaṃrūpaṃ bhikṣur adattaṃ ādadānaḥ ayam api bhikṣuḥ pārājayiko bhavaty asaṃvāsyaḥ (義);
indec: 若在欲界初靜慮中有尋有伺 anyatra vitarkavicārābhyāṃ kāmadhātau prathame ca dhyāne savitarkāḥ savicārāḥ (玄); 若人在此身中 atha yatra kāye sthitaś (真);
pres.part.pass: 若於五陰中説三無爲 skandheṣūcyamānaṃ (真); 
若…若 ruò...ruò 
若…若 ruò...ruò: 
conj: 大臣。殺。縛驅擯 rājā vainaṃ gṛhītvā rājamātro hanyād saṃbadhnīyād pravāsayed (義); 
若…者 ruò…zhě (see also 若) 
若…者 ruò…zhě (see also 若): 
cond: 若僧伽時至聽者 sacet (義);
rel.pron: 若有犯者 yasya syāt āpattiḥ (義); 若造諸罪者 yena (護);若苾芻憶知有犯不發露者 yaḥ (義);
indec: 如夫妻者 yathāpi tāṃ yuvā yuvatiṃ (義);
opt: 若過受者 tata uttari pratigṛhṇīyuḥ (義); 
隨 suí 
隨 suí: follow, listen to, submit; to accompany; subsequently, then CTP 
inst: 隨自心念 cintānumataiś cittasaṃkalpair (義);
pref:隨從 tasyānuvṛtti (義); pref: 隨煩惱 upakleśaḥ (玄); 
是 shì 
是 shì: indeed, yes, right; to be; demonstrative pronoun, this, that CTP 
indec: 是中 atra (義);
dem.pron: 是故 tasmāt (義); 
屬 shǔ 
屬 shǔ: class, category, type; to belong to CTP 
gen: 煩惱則無屬 kleśā na kasyacit (什); 所屬 kasyacit (什); 
所 suǒ 
所 suǒ: place, location; numerary adjunct CTP 
perf.part.pass: 十染所逼迫 daśasaṃkleśapīḍitaḥ (玄); 慳垢所染汚 saṃkliṣṭāḥ (玄); 癡暗法所覆 tamaskandhena onaddhā (玄); 蘊蓋所蔽障 āvṛtanīvatanīvaraṇebhiḥ (玄); 謂所餘諸色 pariśiṣṭaṃ rūpāyatanam (真); 謂所餘色 pariśiṣṭaṃ rūpāyatanam (玄); 所住 sthita (玄);
rel.pron.: yat tad āryā ācakṣate upekṣakaḥ 眾聖所說 (玄); 所謂菩薩成就神通智業圓滿 yad abhijñājñānakarmaṇaḥ paripūriḥ (玄); rel: 何者諸法是所簡擇 為令他簡擇彼法 佛世尊說阿毘達磨 katame punas te dharmā yeṣāṃ pravicayārtham abhidharmopadeśa ity āha (真)(玄); 
爲 wéi 
爲 wéi: do, handle, govern, act; be CTP 
inst: 世爲三火燒 tribhir agnibhir dahyati lokaṃ (玄); āvṛtanīvatanīvaraṇebhiḥ 乃爲諸障所障覆(玄); 
爲 wèi 
爲 wèi: do, handle, govern, act; be CTP 
dat: 爲摧憍慢幢 mānadhvajapātanatāyai (玄); 
已 yǐ 
已 yǐ: already; finished; stop CTP 
ger: 諸惡業 pāpaṃ karma karitvāna yena gacchanti durgatim* (玄); 受得已 pratigṛhya (義);
perf.part.pass: 已説 uddiṣṭaṃ (義); 
以 yǐ 
以 yǐ: by means of; thereby, therefore; consider as; in order to CTP 
inst: 以餘言說 anekaparyāyeṇa (義); 以染纒心 avalavipariṇatena cittena (義); 
亦 yì 
亦 yì: 
conj: 亦應如實答 apy anuśrāvaṇaṃ bhavati (義); 
異 yì 
異 yì: 
pref: 異熟 vipāka (玄); 
因 yīn 
因 yīn: cause, reason; by; because (of) CTP 
dat: 何法名為彼所簡擇因此傳佛說對法耶 katame punas te dharmā yeṣāṃ pravicayārtham abhidharmopadeśa ity āha (final dativ by -artham) (玄); 
應 yīng 
應 yīng: should, ought to, must 
opt: 應許 anujānīyāt (義);
grdv: 不應共住 asaṃvāsyaḥ (義); 應…受 pratigrahītavyāḥ(義); 應共分 saṃvibhaktavyā (義); 
由 yóu 
由 yóu: cause, reason; from CTP 
inst: 由眼見色 cakṣuṣā rūpāṇi paśyati (真); 三種由身起 kāyena trividhaṃ pāpaṃ (玄);
abl: 由 yasmād (真) (玄); 
於 yú 
於 yú: in, at, on; interjection alas! CTP 
acc: 誹謗於甚深佛所説妙法 pratikṣipanti saddharmaṃ gambhīraṃ jinabhāṣitam (玄);
loc: 於此勝苾芻衆中 bhikṣuparṣadi (義); 於欲界 kāmadhātau (真); loc. pl: 於父母師長 mātāpitṛṣu jyeṣṭheṣu (玄);
inst: 於異時 pareṇa samayena (義);
gen: (partitive) 苾芻於此隨犯一一事 yeṣāṃ bhikṣur anyatamānyatamam āpattim adhyāpatya(義); 
於…中 yú zhōng 
於…中 yú zhōng: 
loc: 於修道中 bhāvanāmārge (玄); 於五陰中 skandheṣu (真); 於身中 asmin śarīre (真)(玄); 
與 yǔ 
與 yǔ: and; with; to; for; give, grant CTP 
indec:不得與諸苾芻共住 na labhate bhikṣubhiḥ sārdhaṃ saṃvāsaṃ bhogaṃ vā (義); 與女人身相觸 mātṛgrāmeṇa sārdhaṃ kāyasaṃsargaṃ (義); 
圓 yuán 
圓 yuán: 
pref.: 圓滿 paripūriḥ (玄); 圓滿清淨 pariśuddhaḥ (玄); 
在 zài 
在 zài: be at, in, on; consist in, rest CTP 
loc: 在處界 dhātuṣv āyataneṣu (玄); 在自地 svabhūmike (真); 在修道 bhāvanāmārge (真);
indec: 在此在彼 ihāmutreti (真);
nom.ag: 或在身或在心地 kāyikī caitasikī (真); 
在…中 zài zhōng 
在…中 zài zhōng: 
loc: 在欲界初靜慮中 kāmadhātau prathame ca dhyāne (真); 人在此身中 yatra kāye sthitaś (真); 在色等蘊中 skandheṣu (玄); 
雜 zá 
雜 zá: 
pref: 十雜染逼迫 daśasaṃkleśapīḍitaḥ (護); 
增上 zēng shàng 
增上 zēng shàng: 
pref: 增上慢 abhimānāt (義); 
者 zhě 
者 zhě: that which; he who; those who CTP 
nom.ag: 名惡行者 pāpakāriṇaḥ (玄); 無心者 acittaka (玄);
indec: 自性者次第 svabhāvas tu yathākramaṃ (玄); 
正 zhèng 
正 zhèng: 
pref: 正等淨 saṃprasādāc (玄); 正知 saṃprajānaḥ(玄) 
之 zhī 
之 zhī: it, him her, them; go to CTP 
dem: 解說之 (’bhidharmakośaṃ) vaktum ādriyata iti (真); 如汝所欲。我亦許之。 yathecchasi tathā ’stu (真);
gen: 心心所法生之 cittacaittānāṃ (玄); 心之細性 cittasūkṣmatā (真); 色之自性 rūpasya svabhāva iti (玄); 栴檀之香 candanasya gandhādayaḥ (玄); 彼法及心之生等相 ye jātyādayaś cittasya ca (玄); 
中 zhōng 
中 zhōng: central; center, middle; in the midst of; hit (target); attain CTP 
loc: 人中追求爲大苦 paryeṣṭidukhaṃ manujeṣu 
諸 zhū 
諸 zhū: several, various 
pl: 諸法 te dharmā (真); 
性 xìng 
性 xìng: nature, character, sex CTP 
abs: 心之細性 cittasūkṣmatā (真); 
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Utviklet av: Jens Braarvig, Asgeir Nesøen, Damir Nedic and Heidi Løken
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