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    Click to Expand/Collapse Option Complete text
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionIntroduction
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChaldeans
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChaldeans
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionLydians
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionPersians
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionHebrews
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEgyptians
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionGreeks
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionRomans
ΕΥΣΕΒΙΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΠΑΜΦΙΛΟΥ
ΧΡΟΝΙΚΑ
Παντοδαπὴ ἱστορία

EUSEBII PAMPHILI CAESARENSIS
CHRONICI BIPARTITI 
ԵՒՍԵԲԻ ՊԱՄՓԻԼԵԱՑ
ԿԵՍԱՐԱՅԻՍՑ
ԺԱՄԱՆԱԿԱԿԱՆՔ ԵՐԿՄԱՍՆԵԱՑ 
Eusebius: Chronicle 
PARS PRIMA HISTORICO-CHRONOGRAPHICA 
 
 
            1  
Ընդ պԷսպէս մատեանս արաջնոց պատմութեանց անցի.  զոր քաղգէացիք եւ ասորեստանեայք յիշատակեն.  զոր գրեն մի ընտ միոջէ եւ ե(2)գիպտացիք.  զոր եւ յոյնք վիպեն հաւաստեաւ. որպէս թէ մարթ իցէ:  Ընդ որովք փակեալ կային ժամանակք թագավորաց, եւ ողոմպիադաց, որ թարգմանի ըմբշամարտաց:  եւ զարութիւնս ինչ՝ որ ’ի բարբարոսաց եւ ’ի յունաց, յարեաց եւ յանարեաց գործեցան.  եւ զիւրաքանչիւր ուրուք զօրս զարմանալիս, զզօրավարս, զիմասունս, զքաջս, զբանաստեղծս, զվիպագիրս, զփիլոսոփայս: 
I have searched through the various books of ancient history;  [I have read] what the Chaldaeans and Assyrians have recorded,  what the Egyptians have written in detail,  and what the Greeks have related as accurately as possible.  They include the dates of their kings and the Olympiads, which are athletic contests,  and they contain the outstanding exploits of both the Greeks and the barbarians, of both the brave and the decadent.  They also mention the remarkable victories of these nations, their generals, scholars, heroes, poets, historians and philosophers. 
᾽Εγὼ δὲ περὶ πολλοῦ τὸν ἀληθῆ λόγον τιθέμενος, τὰ ἑκάστῳ πονηθέντα συναγηοχὼς,  καὶ τὴν ἐκ τῶν ἱερῶν βίβλων φερομένην Ἑβραϊκὴν ἀρχαιολογίαν τε καὶ χρονογρφίαν μετὰ χεῖρας θέμενος, τὸ ἀκριβὲς ἀνιχνεῦσαι διὰ σπουδῆς προυθέμην,  ὡς ἂν εἰδείημεν, ὁπόσοις πρόσθην χρόνοις τῆς σωτηρίου θεοφανείας Μωσῆς καὶ οἱ μετ’ αὐτὸν προφῆται, τὰ κατ’ αὐτὴν σὺν θείῳ πνεύματι προπεφωνήκασι·  καὶ ὡς ἂν ἔχοιμεν ἐκ προχείρου διαγιγνώσκειν, τίσιν ῾Ελλήνων ἢ βαρβάρων οἱ παρ’ ἑκάστῳ ἔθνει γενόμενοι [σοφοὶ ἢ ποιηταὶ ἢ λογογράφοι καὶ ὅσοι ἄλλοι γεγόνασι] διαφανεῖς συνήκμασαν·  κατὰ ποίους τε χρόνους ἀπεδείχθησαν  [πρῶται βασιλεῖαι, καὶ τῶν ἐπισημωτάτων πόλεων ἀνιδρύσεις]. 
Կահաւորութիւն համարեցայ, մանաւանդ թէ օգուտ իսկ եւ կարեւոր պէտս, համառօտիւք զամենեսին ’ի կիր արկանել:  Եւ յեբրայեցւոց զառ ’ի սրբոց գրոց կրեալք եբրայական նախնեացն պատմութիւն, եւ զժամանակագրութիւն ընթերակայ հանդէպ ճառելոցս գնէլ:  Որպէս զի ’ի վերայ հասանել կարիցեմք, եթէ ո՛րչափ յա(3)ռաջ քան զկենարար աստուածայայտնութիւնն մովսէս եւ որ յետ նորա եբրայեցւոց մարգարէքն կային՝ իցեն. եւ զոր ինչ աստուածեղէն հոգւովն յառաջագոյն բարբառէին.  զի դիւրաւ ճանաչել մարթիցեմք՝ եթէ որո՛ց յունաց կամ բարբարոսաց, ո՛րք յիւրաքանչիւր ազգս քաջք երեւեցան, դիպեցան.  եւ յո՛ր ժամանակս եղեն անգուստ ’ի վերուստ հոյակապքն ’ի մէջ եբրայեցւոցն մարգարէքն.  եւ ամենեքին՝ որ մի ըստ միոջէ ’ի նոցանէ եղեն նոցա առաջնորդք: 
I think it is fitting, or rather a useful and necessary task, to summarise all this,  and to write down the ancient history and chronology of the Hebrews, taken from the Holy Scriptures, alongside the things which I have just mentioned.  From that we can tell how long Moses, and the prophets who came after him, lived before the appearance on earth of our saviour, about which they prophesied through the holy spirit;  and we can easily recognise in which [reigns] of Greek or barbarian [rulers] the famous men of each race were alive;  and at what time, from the beginning, the outstanding prophets existed amongst the Hebrews,  together with all their rulers, one after another. 
   
(4) Եւ դուլ եւ պատուէր տամ ամենայն ումեք աստէն ’ի սկզբանս, մի երբէք ոգորել յանդգնել, որպէս թէ ստուգիւ ինչ հասու ժամանակացն կարիցէ ոք լինել:  Զայս նախ անտի իսկ շահիցիմք, եթէ ճշմարիտ վարդապետ զայն՝ որ ասաց ցիւր ծանօթսն, համարիցի ոք, թէ 
I warn and advise everyone from the start, that no-one should ever pretend that he can be completely certain about matters of chronology.  It will help if first we remember the advice of our true master, (3) who told his companions (Acts, 1,7): 
οὐχ ὑμῶν ἐστιν γνῶναι χρόνους ἢ καιροὺς οὓς ὁ πατὴρ ἔθετο ἐν τῇ ἰδίᾳ ἐξουσίᾳ· 
չէ՛ ձեր ճամաչել զժամս եւ զժամանակս՝ զոր հայր եդ յիւրում իշխանութեան: 
“It is not for you to know the hours and seasons which the Father has set under his own authority.” 
   
այլ՝ նա աստուածապէս տիրաբար՝ թուի ինձ՝ թէ ո՛չ միայն վասն կատարածի, այլ՛ վասն ամենայն ժամանակաց ետ զայն վճիռն սակաւ բանիւք.  զի զորս լրբել ժտել յայնապիսի դատարկ քննութիւն յօժարեն, արգելուցու: 
He, as our Lord and God, uttered this saying not only about the end of the world, but also, in my opinion, about all dates,  to dissuade men from such pointless investigations. 
         
Նաեւ մեր իսկ բանս՝ աստըստին սմին վկայեալ հաւատարիմ առնիցէ զվարդապետին բարբառ,  թէ ո՛չ յունաց եւ ո՛չ բարբարոսաց եւ ոչ այլոց անդստին իսկ յեբրայեցւոց մարթի հաւաստեաւ ուսանել զամենայն աշխարհի զժամանակագրութիւն:  Բայց զայն եւեթ սիրել, եթէ ամենեւին որ ’ի մէնջ յայժմու ճարս նպաստ լինիցի՝ երկուս ինչս ճանաչել :  Մի՝ զի մի՝ այլոցն ոք նմանեալ կարծիցէ ճըշդիւ գտակաւ հասանել համարոյ ժամանակացն եւ խաբիցի:  Բայց զայն եւեթ ’ի հանդիսի անցուցեալ գիտիցէ, թէ ո՛րպէս զիա՛րդ մարթ իցէ գիտել զխնդիրս որ առաջի կայ, եւ չլինել երկմիտ : 
Indeed, my own words here will confirm this saying of our master,  [by showing] that it is not possible to gain an accurate knowledge of the whole chronology of the world from the Greeks, or from any others, not even from the Hebrews themselves.  But it is possible to hope for this only: that what is said by us in this present treatise will help us to recognise two things.  Firstly, no-one, like some have done, should believe that he is calculating dates with full accuracy, and be deceived in that way.  But he should realise that this has been brought up for discussion, only so that he can know the means and manner of the proposed investigation, and so that he should not remain in doubt. 
         
̄Ընդ յունաց չէ՛ ինչ զարմանալ արտաքոյ հասանելոյ իւրաքանչիւր երկայն ժամանակաց լինելոյ,  որք ընդ ազգի ազգի եղծագործն ապականութեամբ արկին զանձինս.  եւ ընդ երկար ժամանակս մինչեւ ցկադմեայ ազգն՝ ամենեւին գրով ինչ ոչ վարեին.  քանզի կադմոս ասեն նախ եբեր նոցա գիր ’ի փիւնիկեցւոց աշխարհէն:  Եւ յիրաւի' իսկ ’ի պղատոնի գիրսն անգոսնէ եգիպտացին զսոլոն. 
There is no reason to be surprised that the Greeks do not appear in the most ancient times.  They have fallen into various fatal errors,  and for a long time before the generation of Cadmus they were completely ignorant of writing.  They say that Cadmus was the first to bring them the alphabet, from the land of the Phoenicians.  And so the Egyptian in Plato's book (Timaeus, 22b) rightly despises Solon: 
Ὦ Σόλων, Σόλων, Ἕλληνες ἀεὶ παῖδές ἐστε, γέρων δὲ Ἕλλην οὐκ ἔστιν. Ἀκούσας οὖν, Πῶς τί τοῦτο λέγεις; φάναι. Νέοι ἐστέ, εἰπεῖν, τὰς ψυχὰς πάντες· οὐδεμίαν γὰρ ἐν αὐταῖς ἔχετε δι’ ἀρχαίαν ἀκοὴν παλαιὰν δόξαν οὐδὲ μάθημα χρόνῳ πολιὸν οὐδέν. 
ո՞վ սոլոն ասէ՝ յոյնք միշտ մանկտի (6) էք. քանզի ծեր յոյն այր երբէք ոչ գտանի, եւ չի'ք առ ’ի ձէնջ ուսանել ուսումն զհին ժամանակին. 
“O Solon,” he says, “you Greeks are always children. An old Greek man is never to be found, and no-one can learn from you about ancient times.” 
   
Իսկ եգիպտացւոց բազում ինչ առանցիկ ճառք պատմին. նոյնպէս եւ քաղդէացւոց.  զի նոքա ’ի քառասուն եւ յեւս աւելի բիւրս ամաց համարին զգրեալ իւրեանց ժամանակսըն. 
But many improbable stories have been told by the Egyptians and Chaldaeans.  For instance, the Chaldaeans calculate that their recorded history has lasted for more than 400,000 years. 
...ὧν καὶ Εὐσέβιος ὁ Παμφίλου μνησθεὶς ἐν τοῖς χρονικοῖς αὐτοῦ φησιν οὕτος. Αἰγύπτιοι δὲ θεῶν καὶ ἡμιθέων καὶ παρὰ τούτοις νεκύων καὶ θνητῶν ἑτέρων βασιλέων πολλὴν καὶ φλύαρον συνείρουσι μυθολογίαν. 
եւ եգիպտացիք դից իմն եւ այլոց ոմանց դիւցազանց, եւ առ այնու ուրուականաց եւ մահկանացուաց այլոց թագաւորաց բազում ինչ զառանցելոց առասպելս տողեն: 
(5) The Egyptians make up myths about gods and demi-gods, and also about some shades; and they tell many crazy myths about other mortal kings. 
     
Եւ արդ՝ զի'նչ հարկ իցէ ինձ, որ քան զամենայն ինչ զճշմարտութիւն պատուեմ, զայնպիսի իրս մանր կրկտել.  ուր եւ յեբրայեցիս յիմ սիրելիսն երկբայութիւնս գտանի. զոր ’ի դէպ ժամանակի յանդիման կածուցից :  Այղ այս ընդունայնակարծ հպարտութեան ժամանակագրացն ասասցի1 ’ի կշտամբութիւն: 
Yet what forces me to examine such matters in detail now, when I value the truth above all else?  Even amongst my beloved Hebrews one can find inconsistencies, which I will mention at the appropriate time.  But I have said this much in reproach of those chroniclers who are eager for such hollow glory. 
 
Բայց ես վասն իրացն՝ որ առաջի կան , զհնոցն գրովք եկեալ , 
In accordance with these objectives, I will scrutinise the books of the ancient writers. 
 
1) նախ եդից զքաղդէացւոցն ժամանակագըրութիւնն.
2) ապա զասորեստանեայցն.
3) ապա զմարաց թագաւորս.
4) ապա զլիդացւոց. եւ առ նոսին զպարսից:
5) Եւ անտի ’ի միւս տեղի փոխեալ՝ զամենայն զեբրայեցւոց ժամանակագրութիւնն եդից կարգ ըստ կարդէ:
6) Եւ յետ նորին դարձեալ յերրորդ կարգի զեգիպտացւոց հարստութեան ժամանակս:
7) ’Ի նոյն յարեցից եւ (8) զպտղոմեանցն, որ յետ աղեքսանդրի մակեդոնացւոյ թագաւորեցին եգիպտոսի եւ աղեկսանդրեայ:
Զորոյ զկնի մի ըստ միոջէ յայլմէ սկզբանէ, եթէ զիա՛րդ յոյնք զիւրեանց պատմութիւնս պատմեն, ածից ’ի յայտ:
8) Նախ զնոսա՝ որք ’ի սիկիովնին թագաւորեցին.
9) եւ որք յարգիացւոց աշխարհին,
10) եւ որք անդ իսկ յաթենացւոց քաղաքին, յարաջնմէն մինչեւ ցհուսկ յետինն.
11) որք ’ի ղակեդմոնիա, եւ որք ’ի կորնթոս.
12) եւ որք ’ի մի կողմն ուրեք ծովակալք տիրեցին:
13) Յաւելից ’ի սոյնս եւ զգիր ողոմպիադացն՝ որք ’ի յունաց գրեցան:
14) Եւ յետ դնելոյ զսոսա ամենեսին առընթէր միմեանց, ապա եւ զառաջին թագաւորսն մակեդոնացւոց, եւ զթետաղացւոց.
15) ապա եւ զասորեստանեաց, եւ զասիացւոց, որք յետ աղեքսանդրի եղեն վարիչք, մի ըստ միոջի գրեցից:
16) Զորոյ հետ՝ զամենեսին իսկ ուրոյն ուրոյն զատ ’ի միմեանց կարգեցից՝ որք ’յենեայ. որք յետ առնլոյն իլիոնի՝ ղ’ատինացւոց թագաւորեցին, եւ յետոյ հռոմայեցիկ կոչեցան:
17) Եւ յետ նոցա կարգաւ զայնոսիկ՝ որք ’յռոմիղայ, որք զհռովմ քաղաքն շինեցին:
18) Եւ որք ’ի յուլիոս կայսերէ եւ յաւգոստեայ կարգ ըստ կարգէ եղեն ինքնակալք.
19) եւ զհիպատսն՝ որք ’ի միջէ նոցա կացին տարեւորք: 
1) First I will put in writing the chronology of the Chaldaeans;
2) and then the chronology of the Assyrians;
3) next the kings of the Medes;
4) and then the kings of the Lydians and Persians.
5) Then I will go on to a different topic, and set out all the chronology of the Hebrews in sequence.
6) After the Hebrews, in the third section the dates of the Egyptian dynasties.
7) I will add to them the dynasty of the Ptolemaei, who reigned after Alexander the Macedonian in Egypt and Alexandria.
Then I will start on another [topic], and describe one after another what the Greeks have told about their history:
8) first the rulers of Sicyon,
9) and then of the land of the Argives,
10) and of the city of the Athenians, from the first to the last;
11) next, the kings of Lacedaemon and Corinth;
12) and lastly, those who in any region held control of the sea.
13) To these I will add a list of the Olympiads, which are recorded by the Greeks.
14) After I have set out all the Olympiads in sequence, I will write down the first kings of the Macedonians and Thessalians,
15) and then the leaders of the Syrians and Asians, who came after Alexander, one by one.
16) Next I will set out in their turn all the individual rulers of the Latins, who were later called Romans, starting from Aeneias after the capture of Troy.
17) Then in sequence [the kings], starting from Romulus, who founded the city of Rome;
18) the succession of emperors, starting from Julius Caesar and Augustus;
19) and the consuls for each year. 
         
Եւ նիւթս ’ի նոցանէ ամենեցունց ժողովեալ անձին՝ ’ի քրոնիկոն ժամանակական կանոնսն փոխեցայց.  եւ առեալ անդուստ ’ի սկզբանէ ’ի նոցանէ՝ որք յիւրաքանչիւր ազգի թագաւորեցին, զժամանակսն յանցնիւր ուրոյն ուրոյն բաժինս բաժանիցից.  եւ հանդէպ միմեանց կարդեցից ըզթիւս ամաց իւրաքանչիւր ուրուք ’ի նոցանէ.  զի դիւրաւ եւ պատրաստագոյնս ’ի վերայ հասանիցեմք, թէ ո՛ ոք յո՛ր ժամանակս եղեն.  եւ զքաջութինս իւրաքանչիւր թագաւորութեան՝ որք յամենայն ազգաց պատմին, համառօտիւք ’ի մեջ թագաւորութեանն կարգեցի: 
After collecting material from all these sources, I will move on to the chronological canons of time.  Resuming from the beginning with those who ruled in each nation, I will divide their dates into separate series;  (7) and next to them I will place in sequence the numbers of their [regnal] years,  so that it can easily and quickly be seen, at which time each of them lived.  I will briefly mention the outstanding events of each reign, as recorded by every nation, in the context of that reign. 
   
Այլ այնմ երկրորդում առ յապայ գործ լիցի:  Բայց առ այժմ ’ի մօտաւոր ճառիս օ՛ն առ այսր՝ տեսցուք զառ ’ի քալդէացւոց զիւրեանց նախնեաց պատմեալ զժամանակագրութիւն: 
But the second book is a task for the future.  Now, in the following section, let us investigate the chronology of the Chaldaeans, and what they have recorded about their ancestors. 
 
(10) ՔԱՂԴԷԱՑՒՈՑ։ 
[ THE CHALDAEANS ] 
 
Ո՛րպէս քաղդէացք ժամանակագրեն , ’ի բազմավէպն ալեքսանդրեաց . Եւ վասն գրոց քալդեացւոց , եւ վասն արաջին թագաւորութէան նոցա : 
How the Chaldaeans record their chronology, from [the writings of] Alexander Polyhistor; about the books of the Chaldaeans, and their first kings 
Ταῦτα Βηρωσσὸς ἐν τῇ πρώτῃ φάσκει. ἐν δὲ τῇ δευτέρᾳ τοὺς βασιλεῖς ….      Πρὸς τούτοις καὶ Ἀπολλόδωρος ὁμοίως τούτοις τερατευόμενος οὕτω λέγει.  Ταῦτα μὲν ὁ Βηρωσσὸς ἱστόρησε, πρῶτον γενέσθαι βασιλέα Ἄλωρον ἐκ Βαβυλῶνος Χαλδαῖον· βασιλεῦσαι δὲ σάρος δέκα ...  ... ἀλλ’ ὁ μὲν Βηρωσσὸς διὰ σάρων καὶ νήρων καὶ σώσσων ἀνεγράψατο· ὧν ὀ μὲν σάρος τρισχιλίων καὶ ἑξακοσίων ἐτῶν χρόνον σημαίνει,  ὁ δὲ νῆρος ἐτῶν ἕξακοσίων, ὁ δὲ σῶσσος ἕξήκοντα.      Καὶ συνῆξε σάρους ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι διὰ βασιλέων δέκα, ἤτοι χρόνον ἐτῶν μυριάδων τεσσαράκοντα τριῶν καὶ δύο χιλιάδων. 
Զայս՝ բերոսսոս յառաջնում մատենին պատմեաց , եւ յերկրորդումն զթագաւորսն մի ըստ միոջէ յօրինեալ գրեաց :  Որպէս նա ասէ , թէ նաբոնասսարոս կայր ’ի ժամանակին թագաւոր :  Զթագաւորացն անուանս գումարել գումարէ լոկ , բայց ըզգործս ինչ նոցա ոչինչ ճշդիւ պատմէ , կամ թէ չառնէ իսկ արժանի յիշելոյ , եթէ անտի թիւ թագա(11)ւորացն կարգիցի .  եւ սկսանի գրել զայս ձեւ օրինակի .  Ապողոդորոս ասէ՝ նախ թագաւոր կացեալ զաղովրոս , որ ’ի բաբելոնէ իսկ էր քաղդէացի , թագաւորել մնա շարս . ժ .  բաժանեալ զշար մի ’ի թիւ երից հազարաց եւ վեցհարիւր ամաց , գըրեալ՝ ’ի նորին վերայ եւ ներս իմն , եւ սոսս :  Ներ մի ասէ ’ի ներիցն՝ է վեց հարիւր ամ . եւ սոս մի ’ի սոսիցն՝ կ. ամ :  թուեալ զտարիսն զայնպիսիս ըստ արաջնոյ իմն նախնեաց պայմանի :  Զայս ասէ , եւ եւս յարաջ մատուցեալ՝ մի ըստ միոջէ կարագաւ թուէ զթագաւորս ասորեստանեայց . ժ . թագաւոր՝ յաղովրայ յառաջին թագաւորէն մինչեւ ցքսիսութրոն . առ որով ասէ լեալ զմեծ եւ զարաջին ջրհեղեղէն , զորմէ եւ մովսէս յիշատակէ ։  Եւ զժամանակս իշխանութեան թագաւորացն այնոցիկ ասէ շարս ճ . եւ ի : որ լինին բովանդակ . սխգ . բիւրք ամաց : 
That is what Berossus relates in his first book, and in the second book he lists the kings, one after another.  He says that Nabonassar was king at that time.  He merely lists the names of the kings, and says very little about their achievements; or perhaps he thinks that they are not worth mentioning, when he has already stated the number of kings.  He begins to write as follows:  “Apollodorus1 says that the first king was Alorus, who was a Chaldaean from Babylon, and he reigned for 10 sars.”  He divides a sar into 3,600 years, and adds two other [measures of time]: a ner and a soss.  He says that a ner is 600 years, and a soss is 60 years.  He counts the years in this way, following some ancient form of calculation.  After saying this, he proceeds to list ten kings of the Assyrians, one after the other in [chronological] order; from Alorus, the first king, until Xisuthrus, in whose reign the first great flood occurred, the flood which Moses mentions.  He says that the total length of the reigns of the [ten] kings was 120 sars, which is the equivalent of 432,000 years. 
 
Եւ գրէ մի ընտ միոջէ այսպէս : 
He writes about the individual kings as follows: 
 
(12) ’Ի վախճանել ասէ աղովրայ՝ թագաւորեաց որդի նորա աղապարոս շարս . գ : 
(9) When Alorus died, his son Alaparus became king for 3 sars. 
… καὶ καθεξῆς ᾽Αλάπαρον, καὶ ᾽Αμήλωνα τὸν ἐκ Παυτιβίβλων. 
եւ յետ աղապարայ՝ աղմեղոն՝ ’ի քաղդէացւոց ’ի պաւտիբիբղոն քաղաքէ թագաւորեաց շարս . ժգ : 
After Alaparus, Amelon, a Chaldaean from the city of Pautibiblon, became king for 13 sars. 
εἶτα ᾽Αμμέμωνα τὸν Χαλδαῖον,  ἐφ’ οὗ φησι φανῆναι [τὸν μυσαρὸν ᾽Ωάννην] τὸν ᾽Αννηδωτον ἐκ τῆς Ἐρῦθρᾶς. [ὅπερ ᾽Αλέξανδρος προλαβὼν εἴρηκε φανῆναι τῷ πρώτῳ ἔτει. οὗτος δὲ μετὰ σάρους τεσσαράκοντα. ὁ δὲ ᾽Αβυδηνὸς τὸν δεύτερον Ἀννήδωτον μετὰ σάρους εἴκοσιν ἕξ.] 
եւ յետ աղմեղոնայ՝ ամմէնովն ’ի քաղդէացւոց ’ի պարմիբիբղոն (’ի պարսիբիղոն քաղաքէ), թագաւորեալ շարս . ժբ :  ’Ի նորա աւուրս երեւեալ գազան ինչ՝ զոր կոչեն իդովտիովն, ’ի կարմիր ծովէ . որոյ՝ մադկան եւ ձըկան կերպարանք էին ։ 
After Amelon, Ammenon, a Chaldaean from (?) Parmibiblon, became king for 12 sars.  - In his reign, the monster Annedotus, whose form was a mixture between a man and a fish, appeared out of the Red Sea. 
εἶτα Μεγάλαρον ἐκ Παυτιβίβλων πόλεως, βασιλεῦσαι δὲ αὐτὸν σάρους ὀκτωκαίδεκα. 
Եւ ըստ նըմանէ ամեգաղարեայ ’ի պաւտիբիբղոն քաղաքէ թագաւորեալ շարս . ըժ : 
Megalarus, from the city of Pautibiblon, reigned for 18 sars. 
καὶ μετὰ τοῦτον Δάωνον ποιμένα ἐκ Παυτιβίβλων βασιλεῦσαι σάρους δέκα.  κατὰ τοῦτον πάλιν φησὶ φανῆναι ἐκ τῆς ἐρυθρᾶς Ἀννήδωτων τετράδα τὴν αὐτὴν τοῖς ἄνω ἔχων διάθεσιν, καὶ τὴν ἰχθύος πρὸς ἀνθρώπους μίξιν. 
Եւ յետ սորա դաւոնեայ լինել հովուի ’ի պաւտիբիբղոն քաղաքէ . թագաւորեալ եւ նմա շարս . ժ :  Առ (13) նովաւ երեւեալ միւսանագամ ’ի կարմիր ծովէ զնոյն օրինակ մարդկան եւ ձկան կերպարանս ունել չորից յուշկապարիկ գազանաց : 
The shepherd Daonus, from the city of Pautibiblon, reigned for 10 sars.  - In this reign, again four monsters appeared out of the Red Sea, who [like Annedotus] were a mixture between a man and a fish. 
Εἶτα ἄρξαι Εὐεδώραχον ἐκ Παυτιβίβλων, καὶ βασιλεῦσαι σάρους ὀκτωκαίδεκα.  Ἐπὶ τούτου φησὶν ἄλλον φανῆναι ὲκ τῆς ἐρυθρᾶς θαλάσσης ὅμοιον κατὰ τὴν ἰχθύος πρὸς ἄνθρωπον μίξιν, ᾧ ὄνομα ᾽Ωδάκων.  Τούτους δὲ φησὶ πάντας τὰ ὑπὸ Ὠάννου κεφαλαιωδῶς ῥηθέντα κατὰ μέρος ἔξηγήσασθαι. [περὶ τούτου Ἀβυδηνὸς οὐδὲν εἶπεν.] 
Եւ ապա իշխանել եւ եդովրանքայ ’ի պաւտիբիբղոն քաղաքէ շարս . ժը :  եւ առ նովաւ երեւեալ դարձեալ ’ի կարմիր ծովէ այլում ումեմն՝ նման ձկան եւ մարդկան, որում անուն կոչէր ովդակոն :  Զսոնա ամենեսեան ասէ (14) ’ի յովանայ համառօտիւք՝ մի ըստ միոջէ պատմեալ : 
Euedorachus, from the city of Pautibiblon, reigned for 18 sars.  - In this reign, another monster appeared out of the Red Sea, which also was a mixture between a man and a fish, and its name was Odacon.  All these [monsters] explained in detail what Oannes had stated briefly. 
Εἶτα ἄρξαι Ἀμέμψινον Χαλδαῖον ἐκ Λαράγχων, βασιλεῦσαι δὲ σάρους δέκα. 
Եւ ապա իշխել ամենփսինայ քաղդէացւոց ’ի ղանքարաց . թագաւորել եւ նմա շարս . ժ : 
Amempsinus, a Chaldaean from Larancha, reigned for 10 sars. 
Εἶτα ἄρξαι Ὠτιάρτην Χαλδαῖον ἐκ Λαράγχων, βασιλεῦσαι δὲ σάρους ή. 
Եւ ապա իշխել ոտիարտէայ քաղդէացվոց՝ ’ի ղանքարաց . թագաւորել եւ նմա շարս . ը : 
Otiartes, a Chaldaean from Larancha, reigned for 8 sars. 
Ὠτιάρτου δὲ τελευτήσαντος τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ Ξίσουθρον βασιλεῦσαι σάρους ὀκτωκαίδεκα.  Ἐπὶ τούτου τὸν μέγαν κατακλυσμόν φησι γεγενῆσθαι· 
Եւ ’ի վախճանել ոտիարտեայ՝ որդւոյ նորա քսիսութրոսի թագաւորել շարս . ըժ :  Առ նովաւ լինել մեծի ջրհեղեղին 
When Otiartes died, his son Xisuthrus became king, for 18 sars.  - In his reign, the great flood occurred. 
ὡς γίνεσθαι ὀμοῦ πάντας βασιλεῖς δέκα, σάρους δὲ ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι.   
Միանգամայն ամենէքին լինին . ժ . թագաւորք . Շարք . ճ եւ ի :  Եւ համարին այնպէս . 
The reigns of all these kings, added together, make 120 sars.  They are calculated in this way: 
ά. Ἀλῶρος σάρους ί. 
ա . Աղովրոս շարս . ժ : 
Alorus, for 10 sars 
β´. Ἀλάπαρος σάρους γ´. 
բ . Աղապարոս շարս . գ : 
Alaparus, for 3 sars 
γ´. Ἀμηλὼν σάρους ιγ´. 
գ . Աղմէղոն շարս . ժգ : 
Amelon, for 13 sars 
δ´. Ἀμμενὼν σάρους ιβ´. 
դ . Ամմէնովն շարս . ժբ : 
Ammenon, for 12 sars 
έ. Μετάλαρος σάρους ιή. 
ե . Ամեգաղարոս շարս . ժը : 
Megalarus, for 18 sars 
ϛ´. Δάωνος σάρους ί. 
զ . Դաւոնոս շարս . ժ : 
Daonus, for 10 sars 
ζ´. Ἀεδώραχος σάρους ιή. 
է . Եդովանքոս շարս . ժը : 
Euedorachus, for 18 sars 
ή. Ἀμφὶς σάρους ί. 
ը . Ամէնփսինոս շարս . ժ : 
Amempsinus, for 10 sars 
θ´. Ὀτιάρτης σάρους ή. 
թ . Ոտիարտէս շարս . ը : 
Otiartes, for 8 sars 
ί. Ξίξουθρος σάρους ιή. 
ժ . Քսիսութրոս շարս . ժը : 
Xisuthrus, for 18 sars 
   
Միանգամայն թագաւորք . ժ : Շարք . ճի :  Եւ ճի . շարիցն ասեն առնել՝ ախգ . բիւրս ամաց . եթէ շարն՝ գ հաղար եւ վեց հարիւր ամ նշանակիցէ : 
In total, 10 kings and 120 sars.  (11) And they say that 120 sars are the equivalent of 432,000 years, because one sar is the equivalent of 3,600 years. 
         
Զայս բազմավէպն աղէքսանդրի գիրք պատմեն .  եւ եթէ արդար պատմութիւն ինչ ոք զմատենէն կարծիցէ , եւ արդարեւ այնչափ բիւրք ամաց լեալ իցեն , ապա պարտ է այնպիսումն եւ այլոցն եւս որ հանդայն նոցին յայտնի չաւատալիք ’ի նոյն գիրս կամ՝ հաւատալ :  Եւ զինչ այն ինչ իցէ , զոր գրիցէ նոյն բերոսոս անդէն յառաջնում ’ի վիպապատումն մատենին՝ պատմեցից ,  եւ յառաջինսն՝ որ ասացան , յարեցից . զոր ’ի նմին իսկ մատենի եհար բազմավէպն :  եւ թուէ մի ըստ միջէ այսպէս զսոյն ձեւ բանից : 
That is what Alexander Polyhistor says in his book.  But if anyone thinks that what is contained in that book is a true history, and that [those kings] really ruled for so many myriads of years, then he should also believe in all the other similar things in that book, which are equally incredible.  Now I will tell what Berossus wrote in the first book of his history,  and first I will add another quotation from the same book of Polyhistor,  as follows. 
Ἐκ τοῦ Ἀλεξάνδρου τοῦ Πολυίστορος, περὶ τῶν πρὸ τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ βασιλευσάντων δέκα βασιλέων τῶν Χαλδαίων καὶ αὐτοῦ τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ, καὶ περὶ τοῦ Νῶε καὶ τῆς κιβωτοὺ, ἐν οἷς καί τινα διὰ μέσου τερατώδη φάσκει, ὡς τῷ Βηροσσῷ γεγραμμένα. 
(17) վասն քաղդէական անվաւերական պատմութեանն , անդստին ’ի բազմավեպն աղեքսանդրի զնոցն քալդէացւոց մատենէն : 
Another unreliable account of Chaldaean history, from the same book of Alexander Polyhistor about the Chaldaeans 
Βηρωσσὸς ἐν τῇ πρώτῃ τῶν Βαβυλωνιακῶν φησι γενέσθαι μὲν αὐτὸν κατὰ Ἀλέξανδρον τὸν Φιλίππου τὴν ἡλικίαν,  ἀναγραφὰς δὲ πολλῶν ἐν Βαβυλῶνι φυλάσσεσθαι μετὰ πολλῆς ἐπιμελείας ἀπὸ ἐτῶν που ύπ´, ὐπὲρ μυριάδων σιέ περιεχούσας χρόνον·  περιέχειν δὲ τὰς ἀναγρφὰς ἰστορίας περὶ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ θαλάσσης καὶ πρωτογονίας καὶ βασιλέων καὶ καὶ τῶν κατ’ αὐτοὺς πράξεων. 
Բերոսոս բայ ասէ յառաջնում բաբեղոնական մատենին՝ լինել նմա ’ի տիս աղեքսանդրի փիղիպեայ ,  եւ գրել զբազմաց մատեանս , որ եւ ’ի բաբեղոնի բազում զգուշութեամբ պահէին յերկերիւր եւ ’ի հինգետասան (18) բիւրուց ամաց .  յորում թիւք ժամանակաց , եւ գիր պատմութեանց զերկնից եւ զերկրէ եւ զծովէ եւ զնախակերտն արարչութենէ , զթագաւորաց եւ զնոցուն իբաց եւ զգործոց պատմէ : 
Berossus, in the first book of his Babylonian History, says that he lived at the time of Alexander the son of Philippus,  and that he transcribed the writings of many authors, which had been carefully preserved at Babylon, containing the records of (?) over 150,000 years.  These writings contain the history of heaven and the sea, of creation, and of the kings and their deeds. 
Καὶ πρῶτον μὲν τὴν Βαβυλωνίων γῆν φησι κεῖσθαι ἐπὶ τοῦ Τίγριδος καὶ Ἐυφράτου ποταμοῦ μέσην·  φύειν δὲ αὐτὴν πυροὺς ἀγρίους καὶ κριθὰς, καὶ ὦχρον, καὶ σήσαμον·  καὶ τὰς ἐν τοῖς ἕλεσι φυομένας ῥίζας ἐσθίεσθαι· ὀνομάζεσθαι αὐτὰς γόγγους· ἰσοδυναμεῖν δὲ τὰς ῤίζας ταύτας κριθαῖς·  γίνεσθαι δὲ φοίνικας καὶ μῆλα καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ἀκρόδρυα, καὶ ἰχθύας, καὶ ὄρνεα χερσαῖά τε καὶ λιμναῖα.  Εἶναι δὲ αὐτῆς τὰ μὲν κατὰ τὴν Ἀραβίαν μέρη ἄνυδρά τε καὶ ἄκαρπα,  τὰ δὲ ἀντικείμενα τῇ Ἀραβίᾳ ὀρεινά τε καὶ εὔφορα.  ἐν δὲ τῇ Βαβυλῶνι πολὺ πλῆθος ἀνθρώπων γενέσθαι ἀλλοεθνῶν κατοικισάντων τὴν Χαλδαίαν·  ζῆν δὲ αὐτοὺς ἀτάκτως, ὥσπερ τὰ θηρία. 
Եւ նախ դնէ ասէ զբաբիղացւոց երկիրն հաստատել ’ի վերայ դկղաթ գետոյ , եւ արածանւոյ ընդ մէջ անցանել .  եւ յինքն կեայ վայրենի ցորեան եւ գարի եւ ոսպն եւ ոլոռն եւ կմճիթ երկրին բերել .  եւ ’ի խաղս (19) եւ ’ի շամբս գետոյն արմատոց ինչ ուտելեաց գտանէլ , որոց անուն կոչիցին գոնգք , ունել արմատոցն զօրութիւն գարւոյ հացի :  Լինել անդ եւ արմաւ եւ խնձոր , եւ այլոց եւս ազգի ազգի մրգոց . եւ ձկանց՝ եւ հաւուց վայրենեաց եւ մօրականաց :  Լինել եւ արաբացւոց կողմանցն նորա անջրդիս եւ անպտուղս :  Եւ դէմ յանդիման արաբացւոց աշխարհին՝ լեռնայինս եւ պտղաբերս :  Եւ ’ի բաբեղոնի բազմամբոխ այլազգեաց մարդկան բնակեալ ’ի քազդէացւոց աշ(20)խարհին .  եւ կեալ նոցա անառակութեանբ իբրեւ զանասունս եւ զգազանս : 
Firstly, he says that the land of Babylonia lies between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates.  Wild wheat, barley, lentils and sesame grow on the land;  and the marshes produce roots, called gonges, which are as nutritious as barley.  There are dates, apples, (13) and other fruits and fish, as well as birds in the woods and marshes.  The parts lying towards Arabia are dry and barren,  but the parts on the opposite side from Arabia are mountainous and fertile.  A large number of foreigners dwell in Chaldaea; they live in Babylon  in a disorderly way, like wild animals. 
Ἐν δὲ τῷ πρώτῳ ἐνιαυτῷ φανῆναι ἐκ τῆς ἐυθρᾶς θαλάσσης κατὰ τὸν ὁμοροῦντα τόπον τῇ Βαβυλωνίᾳ ζῶον ἀφραῖνον ὀνόματι Ὠάννην,  καθὼς καὶ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἱστόρησε, τὸ μὲν ὅλον σῶμα ἔχων ἰχθύος, ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν κεφαλὴν παραπεφυκυῖαν ἄλλην κεφαλὴν ὑποκάτω τῆς τοῦ ἰχθύος κεφαλῆς, καὶ πόδας ὁμοίως ἀνθρώπου, παραπεφυκότας δὲ ἐκ τῆς οὐρᾶς τοῦ ἰχθύος·  εἶναι δὲ αὐτῷ φωνὴν ἀνθρώπου,  τὴν δὲ εἰκόνα αὐτοῦ ἔτι καὶ νῦν διαφυλάσσεσϑαι.  Τοῦτο δέ, φησὶ, τὸ ζῶον τὴν μὲν ἠμέραν διτρίβειν μετὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, οὐδεμίαν τροφὴν προσφερόμενον,  παραδιδόναι τε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις γραμμάτων καὶ μαθημάτων καὶ τεχνῶν παντοδαπῶν ἐμπειρίαν,  καὶ πόλεων συνοικισμοὺς, καὶ ἱερῶν ἱδρύσεις, καὶ νόμων εἰσηγήσεις, καὶ γεωμετρίαν διδάσκειν,  καὶ σπέρματα καὶ καρπῶν συναγωγὰς ὑποδεικνύναι,  καὶ συνόλως πάντα τὰ πρὸς ἡμέρωσιν ἀνήκοντα βίου παραδιδόναι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις.  ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ χρόνου ἐκείνου οὐδὲν ἄλλο περισσὸν εὑρεθῆναι. 
Եւ յառաջնում ամին յայտնել ’ի կարմիր ծովէ անդէն իսկ ’ի մէջ սահմանացն բաբեղացւոց ահագին ինչ գաղանի , որոյ անուն կոչիցի ովան .  որպէս եւ ապողոդորոս պատմէ ’ի մատենին , թէ ամենայն մարդմինն ձկան էր , եւ ընդ գլխով ձկանն այլ գլուխ առ նմին պատշաչեալ . եւ ’ի տտունն ոտք իբրեւ զմարդոյ .  եւ բարբառ ըստ մարդկան բարբառոյ .  (21) որոյ պատկերն եւ ցայժմ գրեալ պահի :  Եւ գազանին այնմիկ ասէ ցերեկ ընդ մարդկան շրջել , եւ ’ի կերակուր ինչ ամենեւին չհպել .  եւ ուսուցանել մարդկան մարդկան դպրութիւնս , եւ զպէսպէս հանդամանս արուեստից .  զձեւս քաղաքաց , եւ զմեհենաց պատշաճութիւնս , եւ զօրինաց խելամտութիւնս . եւ սահմանաց եւ բաժնից պայմանս ուսուցանել .  եւ զսերմանց եւ զպտղոց ժողովս ցուցանել .  եւ ամենեւին իսկ՝ որ ինչ ’ի դեպ ընտանութեան կենաց իցէ աշխարհի , աւանդել մարդկան .  եւ յայնմ ժամանակէ հետէ այլ ումեք ինչ աւելի չգտանել : 
In the first year, a horrible beast appeared out of the Red Sea in the region near Babylonia. Its name was Oannes,  according to Apollodorus. It had the complete body of a fish, but underneath its head there grew another head, beneath the fish’s head; and in the same way the feet of a man grew of the tail of the fish.  It had the voice of a man,  and its likeness has been preserved even down to the present day.  He says that this beast spent the day with men, taking no food,  but instructing them about writing and science and all kinds of crafts.  It taught them about founding cities and establishing temples, about introducing laws and about geometry.  It showed them how to sow seed and gather fruit;  and in general it gave men all the skills they needed for a civilised life.  Since that time, nothing additional has been discovered. 
τοῦ δὲ ἠλίου δύναντος, τὸ ζῶον τουτονὶ Ὠάννην δῦναι πάλιν εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ τὰς νύκτας ἐν τῷ πελάγει διαιτᾶσθαι· εἶναι γὰρ αὐτὸν ἀμφίβιον.  ὕστερον δὲ φανῆναι καὶ ἕτερα ζῶα ὅμοια τούτῳ, περὶ ὧν ἐν τῇ τῶν βασιλέων ἀναγραφῇ φησι δηλώσειν.  τὸν δὲ Ὠάννην περὶ γενεᾶς καὶ πολιτείας γράψαι, καὶ παραδοῦναι τόνδε τὸν λόγον τοῖς ἀνθρώποις. 
Եւ ’ի մտանել արեգականն՝ ովանն գաղանի միւսանգամ անդրէն ’ի ծով մխել , եւ զցայգ ’ի համատարած ծովուն զետեղել . եւ այնպէս երկեկից իմն կեանծ կեալ : (22)  Եւ յետոյ եւ այլոց գազանաց նմանեաց նմին յայտնել . զորոց ’ի թագաւորաց մատենին ասէ յայտ առնել .  եւ զյովանայն ասէ՝ զարարածոց եւ զառաքինութեանց գրել , եւ տալ խօսս եւ ճարտարութիւն մարկան : 
But when the sun set, this beast called Oannes went back into the sea, and spent the night in the water, because it was amphibious.  Afterwards other similar beasts appeared, which he says he will mention in the list of kings.  But he says that Oannes wrote about creation and about the government of states, and he passed on this message on to mankind. 
Γενέσθαι φησὶ χρόνον, ἐν ᾧ το πᾶν σκότος καὶ ὕδωρ εἶναι,  καὶ ἐν τούτοις ζῶα τερατώδη, καὶ ἰδιοφυεῖς τὰς ἰδέας ἔχοντα ζωογονεῖσθαι·  ἀνθρώπους γὰρ διπτέρους γεννηθῆναι, ἐνίους δὲ καὶ τετραπτέρους καὶ διπροσώπους·  καὶ σῶμα μὲν ἔχοντας ἕν, κεφαλὰς δὲ δύο, ἀνδρεὶαν τε καὶ γυναικείαν, καὶ αἰδοῖα δὲ δισσὰ, ἄῤῥεν καὶ θῆλυ·  καὶ ἑτέρους ἀνθρώπους τοὺς μὲν αἰγῶν σκέλη καὶ κέρατα ἔχοντας, τοὺς δὲ ἵππου ποδας,  τοὺς δὲ τὰ ὀπίσω μὲν μέρη ἵππων, τὰ δὲ ἔμπρσθεν ἀνθρώπων, οὓς ἱπποκενταύρους τὴν ἰδέαν εἶναι.  Ζωογονηθῆναι δὲ καὶ ταύρους ἀνθρώπων κεφαλὰς ἔχοντας καὶ κύνας τετρασωμάτους, οὐρὰς ἰχθύος ἐκ τῶν ὄπισθεν μερῶν ἔχοντας,  καὶ ἵππους κυνοκεφάλους καὶ ἀνθρώπους καὶ ἕτερα ζῶα κεφαλὰς μὲν καὶ σώματα ἵππων ἔχοντα, οὐρὰς δὲ ἰχθύων·  καὶ ἄλλα δὲ ζῶα παντοδαπῶν θηριῶν μορφὰς ἔχοντα.  Πρὸς δὲ τούτοις ἰχθύας καὶ ἑρπετὰ καὶ ὄφεις καὶ ἄλλα ζῶα πλείονα θαυμαστὰ καὶ παρηλλαγμένας τὰς ὄψεις ἀλλήλων ἔχοντα·  ὧν καὶ τὰς εἰκόνας ἐν τῷ τοῦ Βήλου ναῷ ἀνακεῖσθαι,  ἄρχειν δὲ τούτων πάντων γυναῖκα ᾗ ὄνομα Ὀμόρκα εἶναι.  τοῦτο δὲ χαλδαϊστὶ μὲν ϴαλὰτθ, Ἑλληνιστὶ δὲ μεθερμηνεύεται θάλασσα [κατὰ δὲ ἰσόψηφον σελήνη]. 
Էր ասէ երբեմն , մինչ ընդ բնաւ խաւար եւ ջուր էր .  եւ էին անդ այլ ինչ գազանք , յորոց կէսքն ինքնածինք էին , եւ կերպարանս կէնդանածինս ունել ,  եւ մարդիկ երկթեւեանս ծնանել . եւ զայլս չորեքթեւեան եւ երկդիմիս .  եւ մարմին մի , եւ գլուխ երկուս , կանացիս եւ առնիս . եւ երկուս , բնութիւնս՝ արուականս եւ իգականս :  Եւ այլ մարդիկ՝ որոց բարձք այծից , եւ եղջիւրք ’ի գլուխ . եւ այլս ձիստունս .  եւ այլոց՝ յետոյ կուսէ ձիոց կերպարանք , եւ առաջոյ՝ մարդկան . որ զձիացլուց յուշկապարիկ կերպարանս ունիցին :  Ծնանել (23) եւ ցուլս մարդագլոյխս , եւ շունս չորեքմարմինս , որոց ձեռքն իբրեւ ըզձկանց տտունս յետոյ կուսէ ’ի գաւակացն արձակիցին .  եւ ձիս շնագլուխ . եւ մարդիկ , եւ այլ եւս գազանս ձիագլուխս մարդապատկերս , եւ տտնաւորս իբրեւ զձկնունս .  եւ այլ եւս ազգի ազգի գազանս վիշապակերպս .  եւ ձկունս յուշկապարիկս , եւ սողունս եւ օձս , եւ պէսպէս երէս բազումս զարմանալիս՝ այլակերպս ’ի միմեանց .  որոց զպատկերս ’ի մեհենին բէղայ մի ըստ միոջէ նկարեալ պահէին :  Եւ իշխել ամենեցուն նոցա կնոջ միում , որում անուն կոչիցի մարկայէ՛ ,  որ քաղդէեցերէն թաղատթա՛յ անուանի . եւ յունարէն թարգմանի թալադդայ , որ է ծով : 
There was once a time, in which everything was darkness and water.  (15) In those times, monstrous beasts were born, with strange appearances.  There were men with two wings, and some with four wings and two faces.  They had one body, but two heads, of a man and a woman, and two sets of genitals, male and female.  Other men had the legs and horns of a goat, or the hooves of a horse,  or the rear end of a horse and the front of a man, like centaurs.  Other beasts were born, such as bulls with human heads; dogs with four bodies and fish tails protruding from their rear end;  horses with dogs' heads; humans and other animals with the head and body of a horse, but the tail of a fish;  and other beasts with the form of all kinds of wild animals.  As well as these [beasts], there were fish and reptiles and snakes and many other strange creatures, each of which had a different appearance.  Representations of them were set up in the temple of Belus.  A woman called Omorca ruled over all these [creatures];  she is called Thalatth in the Chaldaean language, which is translated into Greek as thalassa ("the sea"). 
Οὕτως δὲ τῶν ὅλων συνεστηκότων, ἐπανελθόντα Βῆλον σχίσαι τὴν γυναῖκα μέσην,  καὶ τὸ μὲν ἥμισυ αὐτῆς ποιῆσαι γῆν, τὸ δὲ ἄλλο ἥμισυ οὐρανὸν, καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ ζῳα ἀφανίσαι,  ἀλληγορικῶς δέ φησι τοῦτο πεφυσιολογῆσθαι·  ὑγροῦ γὰρ ὄντος τοῦ παντὸς καὶ ζώων ἐν αὐτῷ γεγεννημένων, τούτον τὸν θεὸν ἀφελεῖν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ κεφαλὴν,  καὶ ῥυὲν αἷμα τοὺς ἄλλους θεοὺς φυρᾶσαι τῇ γῇ, καὶ διαπλάσαι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους·  διὸ νοερούς τε εἶναι, καὶ φρονήσεως θείας μετέχειν. 
(24) Եւ մինչդեռ այն ամենայն յարուցեալ կայցէ միախուռն , յարձկաէալ ’ի վերայ բէղայ , հերձու զկինն ընդ մէջ ,  զկէսն առնել երկիր , եւ զկէսն երկինս . եւ զայլ եւս գազանսն որ ’ի նմա էին սատակեալ .  Եւ առակաւ իմն ասէ այլ ընդ այլոյ բարոյախօսեալ զայնպիսի բնութեանց ,  թէ մինչգեռ խոնաւ եւ ջուր էր ընդ բնաւ , եւ գազանք միայն էին ’ի նմա , դիցն այնմիկ հատանել զիւր գլուխ .  եւ զարիւնն՝ որ իշանիցէ ’ի նմանէ , առնուլ այլոց դից , զանգանել ընդ զող , եւ ստեղծանել մարդիկ .  վասն որոյ իմաստունս իսկ լինին , եւ դիւցանզանց մտացն հաղորդել : 
When everything was joined together in this way, Belus came along and split the woman in half.  Half of her he made the heavens, and the other half he made the earth; and he destroyed all the creatures on her.  He says that this story is an allegory about nature;  for when everything was wet and creatures were born in it, this god cut off his own head.  The other gods took the blood that flowed from him and by mixing it with earth they created men.  Therefore men are intelligent and have a share of divine reason. 
Τὸν δὲ Βῆλον, ὅν Δία μεθερμηνεύουσι, μέσον τεμόντα τὸ σκότος  χωρίσαι γῆν καὶ οὐρανὸν ἀπ’ ἀλλήλων, καὶ διατάξαι τὸν κόσμον.  Τὰ δὲ ζῶα οὐκ ἐνεγκότα τὴν τοῦ φωτὸς δύναμιν φθαρῆναι,  ἰδόντα δὲ τὸν Βῆλον χώραν ἔρημον καὶ καρποφόρον  κελεῦσαι ἐνὶ τῶν θεῶν τὴν κεφαλὴν ἀφελόντι ἑαυτοῦ τῷ ἀποῤῥυέντι αἵματι φυρᾶσαι τὴν γῆν,  καὶ διαπλάσαι ἀνθρώπους καὶ θηρία τὰ τὰ δυνάμενα τὸν ἀέρα φέρειν.  Ἀποτελέσαι δὲ τὸν Βῆλον καὶ ἄστρα καὶ ἥλιον καὶ σελήνην, καὶ τοὺς πέντε πλανήτας. 
(25) Եւ զբէղայն ասեն՝ որ յունարէն դիոս թարգմանի , եւ հայերէն արամազդ , թե ընդ մէջ կարեաց զխավարն ,  եւ զատանել ’ի միմեանց զերկինս եւ զերկիր , եւ յարդարել յօրինել զաշխարհ .  եւ գազանաց ոչ ժուժել լուսոյ զօրութեան , եւ սատակել :  Տեսանել բէլայ աշխարհ ինչ անապատ եւ պաղաբար .  հրաման տալ միում ’ի դիցն՝ յարենէն որ ’ի հատեալ գլխոյն իւրմէ իջանիցէ , զանգանել ընդ հող,  եւ ստեղծանել մարդիկ , եւ այլ անասունս եւ գազանս , որ կարիցեն այսմ օդոյ ժայժունել .  հաստատել բէղայ զաստեղս (26) եւ զարեգակն եւ զլուսին, եւ զհինգաստեղսն պատրանաց : 
(17) Belus, which is translated as Zeus in Greek, cut the darkness in half.  He separated the earth and the heavens from each other, and he arranged the universe.  But because the creatures could not bear the power of the light, they were destroyed.  When Belus saw that the land was empty and fertile,  he ordered one of the gods to cut off his own head, and by mixing the blood which flowed from him with earth,  to create men and wild beasts who could endure the air.  Belus created the stars, the sun, the moon and the five planets. 
Ταῦτά φησιν ὁ πολυΐστωρ Ἀλέξανδρος τὸν Βηρωσσὸν ἐν τῇ πρώτῃ φάσκειν. ...  ἐν δὲ τῇ δευτέρᾳ ... τοὺς δέκα βασιλεῖς τῶν Χαλδαίων,  καὶ τὸν χρόνον τῆς βασιλείας αὐτῶν σάρους ἑκατὸν εἴκοσιν, ἤτοι ἐτῶν μυριάδας τρεῖς καὶ δύο χιλιάδας, ἕως τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ ...           
Զայս՝ ըստ բազմավիպն , բերոսոս յառաջնում մատենին պատմէ :  Բայց յերկրորդումն զթագաւորսն մի ըստ միոջէ նոյն գրէ ,  եւ զժամանակ զտասն թագաւորացն՝ զորմէ յառաջագոյն ասուցաք, աւելի քան ’ի խ . բիւրս ամաց ձգէ:  իսկ անդ՝ եթէ արդար խօսել ինչ ոք զքաղդէացւոցն կարծիցէ , որ զայնչափ թիւ ամաց գրեցին , ապա յիրաւի իցէ՝ նոցա եւ այլոց պատիր պատմութեանցն հաւատել :  Ապա թէ այս անցանէ զանցանէ ըստ բընութիւն եւ ամենեւին իսկ անվաւերական է . թէպէտեւ այլազգ ինչ իմանայցի :  Իսկ եթէ զայս այսպէս ոք համարիցի , զսորին հետ գայ՝ եի (27) զժամանակացն չառս չառնուլ յանձըն առանց քննութեան :  Եւ եթէ այնչափ հալարաց ամաց՝ որ ըստ նոցա ժամանակագրութեան ժողովին , պայաղաատս ազգաց հանդոյն բազմութեան ժամանակին յարաջ բերէին , եւ իրս ինչ եւ գործս՝ որ ’ի միջի գործեցան՝միաբան ըստ երկայնութեան ժամանակացն , թերեւս յիրաւի ոք այսր անդր հարկանէր , թէ գուցէ արդեօք կայցէ ’ի նոսա ճըշմարտութիւն :  Իսկ եթէ տասն միայն առն կալուածոց այնչափ բիւրս ամաց համարեցան , ո՞ ոք ո՛չ զառանցութիւն զայնպիսի բանսն եւ առասպել համարիցի : 
That, according to Alexander Polyhistor, is what Berossus says in his first book.  In the second book he lists the kings, one after another,  and he says that the time of the ten kings, which we mentioned above, lasted for longer than 400,000 years.  Anyone who believes that these writers are telling the truth about such a huge number of years should believe all the other improbable stories that they tell.  Such a length of time is clearly supernatural, and is not worthy of belief, even if it is explained in a different way.  And even if someone thinks that this number of years is possible, they still should not accept the statement about the dates without some further questions.  If the number of rulers was sufficient to explain all these thousands of years, which are produced by their chronology, or if the writers reported the events and actions which would be expected to occur over such a length of time, then one might perhaps agree that there is some likelihood of their account being true.  But as they claim that so many myriads of years were taken up by the rule of only ten men, who can doubt that these stories are merely ravings and myths? 
  οἱ γὰρ παρ’ αὐτοῖς παλαιότατοι σεληνείους ἔφασκον εἶναι, τουτέστι μηνιαίους, τοὺς ἐνιαυτοὺς, ἐξ ἡμηρῶν τριάκοντα συνεστῶτας·  οἱ δὲ [μετὰ τούτους ἡμίθεοι] ὥρους ἐκάλουν τοὺς ἐνιαυτοὺς τοὺς τουτέστι τριμηναίους.   
Գուցէ ուրէք անուանեալ շարքն՝ ՛ոչ զառ ’ի մէնջ կարծեալ ամս նշանակիցեն , այղ՝ այլ ինչ սակաւարոր ժամանակի տնջըրպետութիւն :  Քանզի եւ առ եգիպտացւոց նախնեօքն լուսնականս իմն ասեին . այսինքն է զամնաւոր աւուրսն , լ , աւուրս բովանդակեալ (28) տարիս կոչեին ,  եւ այլք ժամն՝ զերեքամսեայ ժամանակսն անուանէին . զժամանակսն ասեմ , եւ ըստ իւրաքանջիւր տարեաց զերեքամսեայ փոփոխմունս՝ ’ի տարի համարէին :  Ըմբոն եւ ’ի դեպ է , թէ եւ քաղդէացւոց անուանեալ շարն՝ կամի նոյնպիսի ինչ յայտ առնել : 
Perhaps these so-called sars were originally measured not in years, but in some very small period of time.  For instance, the ancient Egyptians talked about lunar years, (19) that is a month of days or years containing 30 days.  Other people consider the seasons to be periods of three months; in other words, they reckon each changing period of three months as a single year, and count the years in that way.  Similarly, it is likely that the so-called sar of the Chaldaeans indicated some such [period of time]. 
           
Եւ արդ՝ տասն միայն ազգս յա(29)զովրայ յառաջին անուանեալ թագաւորէն նոցա մինչեւ ցքսիսութրոն համարին . առ որով զլինել մեծի ջրհեղեղին վիպագրեն :  Նաեւ յեբրայէցւոց գիրս՝ ժ . ազգս ասէ յառաջ քան զջրհեղեղն մովսէս .  քանզի եւ առ ՚ի յեբրայեցւոց այնչափ պայազատութիւնք արանց մի ըստ միոջէ գրին , յառաջին մարդոյն՝ որ պատմի ’ի նոցանէն , մինչեւ ցջհեղեղն :  Այլ եբրայեցւոց պատմութիւնն զ’ժ . ազգայցն ամն՝ յերկուց հաղարաց ուրեմն թիւ ժողովէ :  Իսկ ասորեստանեացն՝ մանրահետեալ մանր զազգսն , հասարակ թուոց հանդոյն մովսէսի գրոցն ունի . բայց զժամանակսն ոչ նոյնգունակ :  քանզի՝ ճի . շարս ասեն ունել տասն ազգացն . զորմէ համբաւեն առնել ժամանակս ամաց, սխգ . բիւրուց : 
So they count only ten generations from Alorus, who was the first to be called king [of the Chaldaeans], up until Xisuthrus, in whose reign the great flood occurred.  In the Hebrew scriptures also, Moses declares that there were ten generations before the flood;  for the Hebrews mention that number of generations, one by one, from the first man in their account up until the flood.  But Hebrew history assigns about 2,000 years to these ten generations.  Assyrian [history] lists the same number of generations as the book of Moses, but produces a very different total of years.  It says that the ten generations lasted for 120 sars, which is the equivalent of (?) 430,000 years. 
   
Եւ արդ՝ մերձ է եւ քեզ անդաստին յայսցանէ , որ զճշմարտութեան բա(30)նիւն գայցես , յանձնէ իմանալ՝ եթէ քսիսութրոն նոյն է , որ ’ի յեբրայեցւոցն նոյ կոչի . առ որով եղեւ մեծ (31) ջրհեղեղն .  զորմէ եւ բազմավիպին գիրք տան ծանօթս . քանզի գրէ ըզնմանէ այսպիսի ինչ : 
The reader who is keen to know the truth can easily understand, from what we have already said, that Xisuthrus is the same as the man who is called Noah by the Hebrews, in whose time the great flood occurred.  The book of Polyhistor also mentions him, and writes about him as follows. 
... λέγει γὰρ ὁ αὐτὸς Αλεξάνδρος, ὡς ἀπὸ τῆς γραφῆς τῶν Χαλδαίων αὖθις [παρακατιὼν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἐνάτου βασιλέως Ἀδράτου ἐπὶ τὸν δέκατον λεγόμενον παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς Ξίσουθτρον] οὕτος· 
Աղեքսանդրի բազմավիպի վասն ջրհեղեղին , ’ի նոյն գրոց՝ զորմէ ասացաւն : 
From the same book of Alexander Polyhistor, about the flood 
Αρδάτου δὲ τελευτήσαντος , τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ Ξίσουτρον βασιλεῦσαι σάρους ὀκτωκαίδεκα·  ἐπὶ τούτου μέγαν κατακλυσμὸν γενέσθαι·  ἀναγεγράφθαι δὲ τὸν λόγον οὕτως. 
’ի վախճանել ասէ ոտիարտեայ՝ նորին որդւոյ քսիսութրայ թագաւորեալ շարս . ժը .  եւ առ նովաւ լինել մեծի ջրհեղեղին :  Եւ ’ի գրի հարեալ մի ըստ միոջէ այսպէս պատմէ : 
When Otiartes died, his son Xisuthrus became king, for 18 sars.  In his reign, the great flood occurred.  This is how the story is told. 
Τὸν Κρόνον αὐτῷ κατὰ τὸν ὕπνον ἐπιστάντα φάναι μηνὸς Δαισίου πέμπτῃ καὶ δεκάτῃ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ὑπὸ κατακλυσμοῦ διαφθαρήσεσθαι.  Κελεῦσαι οὖν διὰ γραμμάτων πάντων ἀρχὰς καὶ μέσα καῖ τελευτὰς ὀρύξαντα θεῖναι ἐν πόλει ἡλίου Σιππάροις,  καὶ ναυτηγησάμενον σκάφος ἐμβῆναι μετὰ τῶν συγγενῶν καὶ ἀναγκαίον φίλων.  ἐνθέσϑαι δὲ βρώματα καὶ πόματα, ἐμβαλεῖν δὲ καὶ ζῶα πτηνὰ καὶ τετράποδα,  καὶ πάντα εὐτρεπισάμενον πλεῖν.  Ἐρωτώμενον δὲ ποῦ πλεῖ; φάναι πρὸς τοὺς θεοὺς, εὐξόμενον ἀνθρώποις ἀγαθὰ γενέσθαι.  Τὸν δ᾽ οὐ παρακούσαντα ναυπηγήσαντα σκάφος, τὸ μὲν μῆκος σταδίων πέντε, το δὲ πλάτος σταδίων δύω·  τὰ δὲ συνταχϑέντα πάντα συνθέσθαι, καὶ γυναῖκα, καὶ τέκνα, καὶ τοὺς ἀναγκαίους φίλους ἐμβιβάσαι. 
Կրովն ասէ նմա ’ի քուն յայտանել , զոր հայր անուանեն արամաղդայ , եւ այլք՝ ժամանակ , ’ի հնդետասա(32)ներորդում դէսիոս ամսեան , որ է մարերի , մարդկան ’ի ջրհեղեղէն սատակել .  հրաման տալ՝ զամենայն զառաջինս եւ զմիջինս եւ զվերջինս մատենից փորել եւ դնել յարեգ քաղաքին սիպարացւոց :  Նաւ գործել եւ ’ի ներքս մտանել՝հանդերձ ազգա(33)կանօք եւ կարեւոր բարեկամօք .  համբարել ’ի ներքս ռոճիկս եւ ըմպելիս . մուծանել եւ գազանս եւ թռչունս եւ չորքոտանին .  եւ ամենայն կազմածովկ պարաստ լինել ’ի նաւարկել :  Հարցեալ՝ թէ յո՛ ուրեք արդեօք նաւարկիցէ . պատասխանի արարեալ , թէ առ դիսն , աղօթս առնել , զի բարիք մարդկան լինիցին :  Եւ չըստունդանէր գործել զգործ նաւագործութեանն . որոյ երկայնութիւնն էր հինգետասան վտաւան , եւ լայնու†իւնն երկու վտաւանք :  (34) Հանդերձեալ կազմեալ ըստ ամենայնի՝ որպէս եւ առ հրաման , ըզկին եւ զորդիս եւ զկարեւոր բարեկանս ’ի ներքս մուծանել : 
Cronus (whom they call the father of Zeus, while others call him Chronus ["time"]) approached him in his sleep, and said that on the 15th day of the month of Daesius the human race would be destroyed by a flood.  (21) Cronus ordered him to bury the beginnings, the middles and the ends of all writings in Heliopolis, the city of the Sippareni;  to build a boat and embark on it with his close friends;  to load the boat with food and drink, and to put on board every kind of bird and four-footed creature;  and then, when all the preparations were complete, to sail away.  When he asked where he should sail, Cronus replied, “To the gods, to pray that good things may happen to men.” Xisuthrus did as he had been told.  He built a boat which was 15 stades long, and 2 stades wide.  After completing everything as instructed, he sent his wife, his children and his close friends onto the boat. 
Γενομένου δὲ τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ, καὶ εὐθέως λήξαντος, τῶν ὀρνέων τινὰ τὸν Ξίσουθρον ἀφιέναι·  τὰ δὲ οὐ τροφὴν εὑρόντα οὔτε τόπον ὅπου καθίσαι, πάλιν ἐλθεῖν εἰς τὸ πλοῖον.  τὸν δὲ Ξίσουθτρον πάλιν μετά τινας ἡμέρας ἀφιέναι τὰ ὄρνεα·  ταῦτα δὲ πάλιν εἰς τὴν ναῦν ἐλθεῖν τοὺς πόδας πεπηλωμένους ἔχοντα.  τὸ δὲ τρίτον ἀφεθέντα οὐκ ἔτι ἐλθεῖν εἰς τὸ πλοῖον.  Τὸν δὲ Ξίσουθρον ἐννοηϑῆναι γῆν ἀναπεφηνέναι·  διελόντα τε τῶν τοῦ πλοίου ῥαφῶν μέρος τὶ, καὶ ἰδόντα προσοκεῖλαν τὸ πλοῖον ὄρει τινὶ  ἐκβῆναι μετὰ τῆς γυναικὸς καὶ τῆς θυγατρὸς καὶ τοῦ κυβερνήτου, προκυνήσαντά τε τὴν γῆν  καὶ βωμὸν ἱδρυσάμενον καὶ θυσιάσαντα τοῖς θεοῖς,  γενέσθαι μετὰ τῶν ἐκβάντων τοῦ πλοίου ἀφανῆ.  Τοὺς δὲ ὑπομείναντας ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ, μὴ εἰσπορευομένων τῶν περὶ τὸν Ξίσουθτρον ἐκαβαντας ζητεῖν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ ὀνόματος βοῶντας·  τὸν δὲ Ξίσουθρον αὐτὸν μὲν αὐτοῖς οὐκ ἔτι ὀφθῆναι, φωνὴν δὲ ἐκ τοῦ ἀέρος γενέσθαι κελεύουσαν, ὡς δέον αὐτοὺς εἶναι θεοσεβεῖς·  καὶ γὰρ αὐτὸν διὰ τὴν εὐσέβειαν πορεύεσθαι μετὰ τῶν θεῶν οἰκήσοντα·  τῆς δὲ αὐτῆς τιμῆς καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν θυγατέρα, καὶ τὸν κυβερνήτην μετεσχηκέναι.  εἶπέ τε αὐτοῖς ὅτι ἐλεύσονται πάλιν εἰς Βαβυλῶνα  καὶ ὡς εἵμαρται αὐτοῖς ἐκ Σισπάρων ἀνελομένοις τὰ γράμματα διαδοῦναι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις·  καὶ ὅτι ὅπου εἰσὶν ἡ χώρα Ἀρμενίας ἐστίν. 
’Ի հասանել ջրհեղեղին , եւ վաղվաղակի ցածնուլ , թռչունս ինչ արձակել քսիսութայ,  եւ չգտանել ուտել ինչ՝ եւ ո՛չ տեղի եւ դադար իջանելոյ . դարձեալ միւսանգամ առնուլ զնոսա ’ի նաւն .  եւ յետ սակաւ ինչ աւուրց դարձեալ արձակել այլ հաւս .  եւ նոցա եւս միւսանգամ անդրէն ’ի նաւն գալ՝ կաւով թաթախ զմագիլսն բերեալ :  Ապա երրորդ անգամ արձակել , եւ անդրէն միւսանգամ չգալ ’ի նաւն :  Յայնժամ իմանել քսիսութրայ՝ եթէ յայտնեալ բացեալ է երկիր ,  քակել զկողմ մի ձեղուան նաւին . եւ տեսանե երթէալ յեցեալ զնաւն ’ի լեառն ինչ :  Ելանել կնաւ եւ դստերբ միով հան(35)դերձ, եւ ճարտարապետաւ նաւին , եւ երկիրպագանել յերկիրի .  բագին կանդնել , եւ զոհ գից մատուցանել .  եւ այնուհետեւ չիք յաչաց լինել՝ նոքօք հանդերձ , որք ընդ նմա ’ի նաւէն ելանէին :  Եւ որք անդէն ’ի նաւէն մնային՝ եւ չելանէին ընդ քոիսութրեանց, ելեալ յետոյ խնդրէին զնա, եւ յանուանէ չրջէին գոչէին կոչէին :  Քսիսութրայ չերեւեալ այնուհետեւ նոցա . բայց ձայն բարբառոյ յօդոցն եկեալ՝ պատուէր տայր , (36) եթէ պա՛րտ է նոցա դիւցապաշտս լինել ,  եւ եթէ ինքն վասն դիւցապաշտութեանն երթեալ բնակիցէ ’ի բունակութիւն դիցն .  եւ կնոջն նորա եւ դստեր եւ նաւապետին ’ի նոյն պատիւ վայելել :  Եւ դուլ եւ պատուէր տալ նոցա՝ երթալ միւսանգամ ’ի բաբիղոն .  եւ թէ այնպէս ինչ հրամանք դիցն , նոցա երթալ ’ի սիպարացւոց քաղաքէն փորել հանել զմատեանսն՝ ործածակեալ կայեն անդ , եւ տալ մարդկան .  եւ եթէ տեղին՝ յորում կայրի ելեալ կային , հայոց աշխարհն է : 
When the flood had come, and soon afterwards stopped, Xisuthrus sent out some of the birds.  But they could not find any food or anywhere to rest, and so they returned to the boat.  A few days later, Xisuthrus sent out the birds again,  and this time they returned to the boat with mud on their feet.  The third time that he sent out the birds, they no longer returned to the boat.  Xisuthrus realised that some land had appeared.  He removed part of the sides of the boat, and saw that it had come to rest on a mountain.  He disembarked with his wife and daughter and the helmsman, and kissed the ground.  After he had set up an altar and had sacrificed to the gods,  he disappeared from sight, along with the others who had left the boat with him.  When Xisuthrus and his companions did not return, the remainder of those who were on the boat disembarked and searched for him, calling out his name.  They could not see Xisuthrus anywhere, but a voice came out of the sky telling them that they should honour the gods,  and that Xisuthrus had gone to live with the gods, because of the honour he showed them;  his wife, his daughter and the helmsman had received the same reward.  The voice told them to return to Babylon;  they were destined to dig up the writings which had been hidden in the city of the Sippareni, (23) and distribute them amongst men.  They were told that they were now in the land of Armenia. 
Τοὺς δὲ ἀκούσαντας ταῦτα θῦσαί τε τοῖς θεοῖς, καὶ πεζῇ πορεθῆναι εἰς Βαβυλῶνα.  Τοῦ δὲ πλοίου τούτου κατακλιθέντος ἐν τῇ Ἀρμενίᾳ ἔτι μέρος τί αὐτοῦ ἐν τοῖς Κορδυαίων ὄρεσι τῆς Ἀρμενίας διαμένειν,  καί τινας ἀπὸ τοῦ πλοίου κομίζειν ἀποξύοντας ἄσφαλτον, χρᾶσθαι δὲ αὐτῇ πρὸς τοὺς ἀποτροπιασμούς.  Ἐλθόντας οὖν τούτους εἰς Βαβυλῶνα τά τε ἐκ Σισπάρων γράμματα ἀνορύξαι  καὶ πόλεις πολλὰς κτίζοντας, καὶ ἰερὰ ἀνιδρυομένους πάλιν ἐπικτίσαι τὴν Βαβυλῶνα. 
Եւ նոցա լուեալ զայն ամենայն՝ զոհս դից մատուզանեն. եւ ’ի հետիոտս ’ի բաբիղոն գնալ :  Եւ ’ի նաւէն՝ ուր (կամ որ) չոգաւ դադարեաց ’ի հայս, եւ ցայժմ սակաւ ինչ (37) մասն ’ի կորդուացւոց լերինն ’ի հայոց աշխարհին մնալ նշխար ասեն .  եւ ոմանց քերել բերել ’ի ծեփածոյ նաւին նաւթոյ՝ ’ի բժշկութիւն եւ ’ի ջնջոց ցաւոց ինչ բժժանաց :  Եւ նոցա երթալ հասանել ’ի բաբէղոն . փորել ’ի սիպարացւոց քաղաքին , եւ զմատեանն հանել .  եւ բազում քաղաքս շինել , եւ մեհեանս դից կանդնել , եւ միւսանգամ զբաբէղոն նորոգել : 
When they heard all of this, they sacrificed to the gods and went by foot to Babylon.  A small part of the boat, which came to rest in Armenia, can still be found in the mountains of the Cordyaei in Armenia.  Some people scrape off the asphalt, which covers the boat, and use it to ward off diseases, like an amulet.  When they arrived back in Babylon, they dug up the writings in the city of the Sippareni.  They founded many cities, and re-founded Babylon, constructing many temples. 
 
Եւ հանդերձ այսու ամենայնիւ եւ զաշտարակագորձութենէն եւս բազմավէպն ըստ մովսիսի գրոցն յիշէ , զայս ձեւ օրինակ մինչեւ ց՚սիղոբայս անգամ : 
Afterwards Polyhistor gives an account of the building of the tower, which agrees with the books of Moses, in exactly these words. 
... ἀλλὰ καὶ Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Πολυΐστωρ ὡς ἐκ Σιβύλλης τάδε φησὶ ... Ἀλεξάνδρου τοῦ Πολυΐστορος περὶ τῆς πυργοποιίας. 
(38) Աղեկսանդրի բազմավիպի վասն աշտարակագործութեանն : 
[From the writings] of Alexander Polyhistor, about the building of the tower 
Σιβύλλα δὲ φησιν ὁμοφώνων ὄντων πάντων ἀνθρώπων τινὰς τούτων πύργον ὑπερμεγέθη οἰκοδομῆσαι, ὅπως εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀναβῶσι·  τοῦς δὲ θεοὺς ἀνέμους ἐμφυσήσαντας ἀνατρέψαι ἀυτοὺς,  καὶ ἰδίαν ἑκάστῳ φωνὴν δοῦναι, διὸ δὴ Βαβυλῶνα τὴν πόλιν κληθῆναι.  μετὰ δὲ τὸν κατακλυσμὸν Τιτᾶνα καὶ Προμηθέα γενέσθαι· καὶ τὰ μὲν τῆς πυργοποιΐας Ἀλέξανδρος ταῦτα .. 
Սիբիղղա ասէ . միաբանեալ ամենայն մարդիկ՝ զբարձրաբերձ աշտա(39)րակն շինէին, զի յերկինս ելանիցեն .  եւ ամենազօրն աստուածոյ հողմ շնչեալ՝ զաշտարակն կործանէր ,  եւ իւրաքանչիւր ումեք զիւր լեզու բշխէր . վասն որւյ եւ անուն քաղաքին բաբիղոն կոչէր :  Իսկ յետ ջրհեղեղին տիտանս եւ պրոմէթեւս լինէին . ուր եւ տիտանն ընդ կրովնի ’Ի մարտ պատերազմի գրգռէր : 
The Sibyl says: “When men all spoke the same language, they built a very tall tower, so that they could climb up to heaven.  However god blew a wind at them and overturned the tower.  Then he gave each of them their own language, and so the city was called Babylon.  After the flood there came Titan and Prometheus, in whose time Titan made war against Cronus.” 
 
Բայց ’ի նոյնս եւ զայս եւս յարեալ գրէ բազմավէպն , 
That is what Polyhistor says about the building of the tower. He continues with the following details. 
 
Բայց ’ի նոյնս եւ զայս եւս յարեալ գրէ բազմավէպն , թէ յետ ջրհեղե(40)ղին թագաւորէր քաղդէացւոց աշխարհին եւեքսիոս ներըս չորս : 
After the flood, (?) Euechius ruled the land of the Chaldaeans, for 4 ners 
 
Եւ յետ նորա առնոյր զիշխանութիւնն որդի նորա քոմասբեղոս՝ ներըս չորս եւ սոսըս հինգ : 
Then his son Chomasbelus became king, for 4 ners and 5 sosses 
       
՚Ի քսիսութրայ եւ ՚ի ջրհեղեղէն՝ մինճեւ մարք զբաբէլոն առին , ընդ ամենայն՝ ձզ . թագաւոր համարի բազմավէպն . եւ յանուանէ յիշէ զիւրաքանչիւր ոք՝ ՚ի բերոսոսայ մատենէն .  եւ զժամանակ ամենեցուն նոցա ժողովէ ՚ի թիւ ամաց երից բիւրուց , եւ երից հազարաց , եւ իննսուն եւ մի :  Եւ յետ նոցին ընտ նոցանէ յայնպիսի հաստատութեան յանկարձակի մարք զօր ՚ի վերայ բաբեղոնի գումարէին՝ աւնել զնա ,  եւ կացուցանել անդ բռնաւորս յինքեանց : 
From Xisuthrus and the flood until the capture of Babylon by the Medes, (25) Polyhistor lists 86 kings in all, and names each of them, copying their names from the book of Berossus.  These kings reigned in total for 33,091 years.  But when the city had become so firmly established, the Medes unexpectedly led their forces against Babylon and captured it.  Then they set up their own kings as rulers there. 
 
Ապա եւ զանուանս բռնաւորաց մարացն դնէ՝ թուով . ը . եւ նոցին ամս , միդ : 
He names 8 kings of the Medes, who reigned for 224 years 
 
եւ դարձեալ մետասան թագաւորս , եւ ամս … : 
Then again 11 kings, for [28] years 
 
Ապա եւ զքաղգէացւոց . խթ . թագաւորս . եւ ամս . նձը . 
Then 49 kings of the Chaldaeans, for 458 years 
 
Ապա եւ զարաբացւոց . թ . թագաւորս . եւ ամս . մխե : 
Then 9 kings of the Arabs, for 245 years 
 
Յետ որոց ամաց եւ շամիրամայ վիպագէ տիրել ասորեստանեաց : 
After that time (he says) Semiramis was ruler of the Assyrians 
 
ԵՒ դարձեալ մանր թուէ անուանս , (41) խե . թագաւորաց , եւ դնէ նոցա սմս . շիզ : 
Then he lists individually the names of 45 kings, and allocates 526 years to them 
   
Յետ որոց ասէ կացեալ թագաւոր քըլդէացւոց , որում անուն է փուլոս .  զոր դարձեալ եւ եբրայեցւոց պատմութիւնն յեշէ , եւ անուանէ փուլոս . զորմէ ասն՝ թէ եկն ՚ի վերայ երկրին հրէաստանի : 
After them, Phulus became king of the Chaldaeans  - The Hebrew scriptures [2 Kings 15’19]2 call this king Pul, and say that he invaded the land of the Hebrews. 
 
էւ յետ նորա բազմավէպն ասէ զսենեքերիբայ կացեալ թագաւոր . 
After him, Polyhistor says that Sennacherib became king. 
  Καὶ ἐγένετο τοῦ τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτου ἔτους βασιλεύοντος ᾽Εζεκίου, ἀνέβη Σενναχηρεὶμ βασλιεὺς Ἀσσυρίων ἐπὶ τὰς πόλεις τῆς Ἰουδαίας τὰς ὀχυρὰς, καὶ ἔλαβεν αὐτάς.  … καὶ ἐβασίλευσεν Ἀσορδὰν ὁ υἱὸς αὐτοῦ ἀντ’ αὐτοῦ.  Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ καιρῷ ἐκείνῳ, ἐμαλακίσθη Ἐζεκίας.  Ἐν τῷ καιρῷ ἐκείνῳ ἀπέστιελε Μαρωδὰχ Βαλαδὰν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Βαλαδὰν, ὁ βασιλεὺς τῆς Βαβυλωνίας, ἐπιστολὰς καὶ πρέσβεις καὶ δῶρα Ἐζεκίᾳ· 
զոր եբրայեցւոց գիրք յիշեն . թագաւորեալ սա առ եզեկիայիւ արքայիւ , եւ առ եսայեաւ մարգարէիւ ,  ասեն աստւաձեղէն գիրք կարդ ընտ կարգէ , եթէ եղեւ ՚ի չորեքտասաներորդում ամին եզեկիայ արքայի՝ ել սինաքերիբ արքայ ասորեստանեաց ՚ի վերայ ամուր քաղաքացն հրէաստանի , եւ առ զնոսա :  Եւ յետ ամենայն պատմութեանն՝ ՚ի նոյն յարեալ ասէ . եւ թագաւորեաց ասորդան որդի նորա ընդ նորա :  Եւ գորդձեալ եւ՛ս յարաջ մատուցեալ զնովիմբ աձէ , եթէ ելեւ ՚ի ժամանակիմ յայնմիկ՝ խօթացաւ եզեկիա .  եւ ՚ի կարդ արկեալ (42) թուէ , թէ ՚ի ժամանակին յաբմիկ առաքէաց մարովդաք բաղգան արքայ բաբիղոցւոց հրեշտակս եւ հրովարտակս եւ պատարագս եզեկիայ : Զայս եբրայեցւոց գրիք  
The Hebrew scriptures say that Sennacherib was king at the time of king Hezekiah and the prophet Isaiah.  To be exact, Holy Scripture says [2 Kings 18’13]: “It happened in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah that Sennacherib the king of the Assyrians marched against the fortified cities of Judah, and captured them.”  And after telling the whole story, it continues [2 Kings 19’37]: “And his son Esarhaddon reigned in his place.”  Later on again, it adds [2 Kings 20’1]: “It happened at that time that Hezekiah fell ill”,  and [2 Kings 20’12] “at that time Merodach Baladan sent envoys with letters and gifts to Hezekiah.” That is what the Hebrew scriptures say. 
 
Բյաց զսինեքերիբ եւ զորդի նորա զասորդան եւ զմարոդաք բալդան՝ եւ քաղդէացւոց մատենագիրն յիշատակէ . նոքօք հանդերձ եւ զնաբուքոդոնոսար , որպէս այսր յիշատակեալ ճառս է , գրեալ զնոցանէ այսպիսի բանիւք : 
But Sennacherib and his son Esarhaddon [Asordanus] and Merodach Baladan, along with Nebuchadnezzar, are mentioned by the historian of the Chaldaeans, who speaks about them as follows. 
 
Նորին ալեխսանդրի վասն սենեխերիբաց , եւ վասն նաբուխոդոնասորաց, եւ վասն նոցին կորձոց եւ արութեանց : 
(27) [From the writings] of the same Alexander, about Sennacherib and Nebuchadnezzar, their exploits and their virtues 
           
Յետ թագաւորելոյ եղբօրն սենիքարիբայ , եւ յետ տիրելոյ ակիսեայ բաեղացւոց , մինչ չեւ եւս զերեսուն օր կալեալ էր զիշխանութիւնն՝ սպանաւ ՚ի մարուդաք բաղ(43)դանայ .  եւ մարուդաք բաղադան բըռնացեալ ունէր զվեց ամիս . եւ սպանանէր զնա ոմն՝ որում անուն էր եղիբոս , եւ թագաւորէր :  Եւ յերրորդում ամի թագաւորութեան նորա սենեքերիբոս արքայ ասորեստանեաց զօրս գումարէր ՚ի վերայ բաբէղացւոցն , ճակատ տուել ընդ նոսա՝ եւ յաղթէր .  եւ ձերբակալ արարեաղ զնա հանդերձ բարեկամօքն՝ տայր տանել յերկիրն ասորեստանեաց :  Տիրէր բաբէղացւոց , եւ կացուցանէր նոցա թագաւոր զորդի իւր զասորդանիոս .  եւ ինքն չուէր երթայր յերկիրն ասորեսրանեաց : 
After the reign of the brother of Sennacherib, when Achises had been king for less than thirty days, he was killed by Merodach Baladan.  Merodach Baladan seized the throne, but after ruling for six months he was killed by someone called Elibus, who became king in his place.  In the third year of his reign, Sennacherib the king of the Assyrians led an army against the Babylonians and defeated them in battle.  He captured Elibus, and ordered him to be taken with his friends to the land of the Assyrians.  After bringing the Babylonians under his control, he appointed his son Asordanus to be their king.  Then he returned to the land of the Assyrians. 
       
Իբրեւ լու եղեւ նմա , եթէ եկեալ հասաել են յոյնք յաշխարհն կիլիկեցւոց՝ տալ պատերազմ , ՚ի վերայ դիմէր ճակատ առ ճակատ յարդարէր .  եւ զբազումս ՚ի յիւրոց զօրացն կոտորեալ՝ թշնամեացն յազթէր պատերազմին . եւ յիշատակ յաղթութեան զիւր պատկերն ՚ի տեղուջն կանդնեալ թողոյր .  եւ քաղդէական գրով զքաջութիւնն իւր եւ զղօրութիւն դրոշմել հրամայէր ՚ի յիշատակ առ յապա ժամանակաց :  Եւ զտարսոն քաղաք ասէ՝ , նա շինեաց ՚ի նմանութիւն բաբէղոնի , եւ անուն գնէր քաղաքին թարսին : 
When Sennacherib heard that the Greeks had arrived in Cilicia with the intention of fighting, he set out for Cilicia and met them in battle.  Although many men from his own army were killed, he defeated the enemy, and as a monument of his victory he set up a statue of himself in that place.  He ordered it to be inscribed with Chaldaean letters, which recorded his bravery and greatness for future generations.  And he founded the city of Tarsus, on the same model as Babylon, and gave it the name of Tharsis. 
 
էւ յետ այլ ամենայն գործոց սինեքերիմայ՝ եւ զայն եւս ՚ի նոյն յերեալ՝ ասէ , թե ըժ . ամ եկեաց . եւ նենդ գործեալ նմա յիւրմէ որդւոյն արդումուզանեայ՝ վախճանէր : Զայս բազմավէպն : 
Then, after relating the other achievements of Sennacherib, he adds: “After remaining [in power] for 18 years, he died as a result of a plot which was formed against him by his son Ardumuzan.” That is what Polyhistor says [about Sennacherib]. 
   
Բայց եյ ժամանակքն իսկ միա(44)բան են բանիցն ասացելոց յաստուածատուրն գրոց .  քանզի առ եզեկիաւ թագաւորեաց սինաքերիմ , որպէս բազմավէպն յայտ առնէ՝ ամս , ըժ : 
These dates agree with what is said in Holy Scripture.  For in the time of Hezekiah, as Polyhistor states: Sennacherib was king, for 18 years 
 
եւ յետ նորա որդին՝ ամս . ը : 
Then his son, for 8 years 
 
եւ ապա սամմուգէս՝ ամս իա : 
Then Sammuges, for 21 years 
 
եյ նորին եղբայրն՝ ամս . իա : 
His brother, for 21 years 
 
եւ ապա նոբուպաղնար՝ ամս ի : 
Then Nabopolassar for 20 years 
 
եւ յետ նորա նաբուկոդրոսսորոս՝ ամս . խգ : 
Then Nebuchadnezzar for 43 years 
 
Եւ միանգամայն ժողովին ՚ի սնեքերիմայ մինչեւ ՚ի նաբուկոդրոսսորոս՝ ամք ձը : 
In total, from Sennacherib until Nebuchadnezzar, there are 88 years. 
   
Եւ ըստ եբրայեցւոց գրոց՝ եթէ կրկտէ ոք , նմին հանդոյն գտանէ .  քանզի յետ եզեկիայ՝ մնացելոց հըրէիցն թագաւորէ 
A careful investigation of the Hebrew scriptures will come to a similar conclusion.  (29) After Hezekiah, the kings who reigned over the remaining Jews were: 
 
մանասէ որդի եզեկիայ՝ ամս . ծե : 
Manasseh, the son of Hezekiah, for 55 years 
 
եւ ապա ամուվս՝ ամս , ժբ : 
Then Amon, for (?) 2 years 
 
եւ յետ նորա յովսիա՝ ամս լտ : 
Then Josiah, for 31 years 
   
եւ ապա յուակիմ .  յորոյ ՚ի սկըզբան թագաւորութեանն եկն նաբուքոդոնոսաոր , պաշարեաց զերուսաղէմ , եւ տարաւ զգերի հրէիցն ՚ի բաբէղոն : 
Then (?) Jehoiachin  - At the beginning of his reign, Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem and took Jewish captives back to Babylon. 
 
Եւ լինին յեզեկիայ մինչեւ զնաբուգոդոնոսոր՝ ամք . ձը . որչափ եւ բազմավէպն ՚ի քաղդէական մատենագրութենէն համարեցաւ : 
In total, from Hezekiah until Nebuchadnezzar, there are 88 years, which is the same number of years as was calculated by Polyhistor in his history of the Chaldaeans. 
      Τοῦτον ὁ Πολυΐστωρ Ἀλέξανδρος Σαρδανάπαλλον καλεῖ, 
Եւ յետ այսր ամենայնի դարձեալ բազմավէպն զիրս ինչ եւ զգործս սենաքերիբայ պատմէ ,  եւ զորդւոյ նորա յիշատակէ հանդոյն եբրայեցւոց գրոցն . եւ համարի մի ըստ միոջէ զամենայն :  Եւ զպիթագորայ իմաստնոյ ասեն զայնու ժամանակաւ առ նոքօք լինել :  Եւ յետ սամոգեայ սարդնապաղղոս թագաւորեաց քաղդէացւոցն ամս . իա : 
After this, Polyhistor relates some other deeds and exploits of Sennacherib.  He speaks about his son in the same way as the Hebrew scriptures, and gives a detailed account of all that happened.  He says that the philosopher Pythagoras lived at the same time as these kings.  After Sammuges, Sardanapallus was king of the Chaldaeans for 21 years. 
πέμψαντα πρὸς Ἀστυάγην σατράπην Μηδείας, καὶ τὴν θυγατέρα αὐτοῦ Ναουχοδονόσωρ.       
Սա առաքեաց առ աժդահակ մարաց նահապետ եւ նախարա՝ զօրս յօգնականութիւն , առնուլ կին որդւոյ իւրում նաբու(45)կոդրոսսորայ զդուստր մի աժդահակայ զամուհեան :  Եւ ապա թագաւորեաց նաբուկադրոսսորոս ամս . խգ :  եւ զօրս գումարեալ՝ գայր առնոյր գերի զհրէայս եւ զփիւնիկեցիս եւ զասորիս :  Եւ զի այսու եւս եբրայեցւոց գրոցն միաբան է բազմավէպն , չեն ինչ պէտք բազում բանից : 
Sardanapallus sent an army to the assistance of Astyages, the satrap of the Medes, and accepted Amyïtis, the daughter of Astyages, as the bride of his son Nebuchadnezzar.  Then Nebuchadnezzar became king for 43 years.  After gathering an army, he attacked the Jews, Phoenicians and Syrians, whom he took away as captives.  I do not need to give a long explanation to prove that Polyhistor agrees with the Hebrew scriptures in this matter also. 
         
Եւ յետ նարուկոդրոսսորայ թագաւորեաց որդի նորա մաիղմորուդոքոս՝ ամս . ժբ :  զոր եբրայեցւոց պատմութիւնն իլմարուդորքոս անուանէ :  Եւ յետ նորա՝ բազմավեպն ասէ , թէ թագաւորեաց քաղդեացւոց նէգլոսարոս՝ ամս . դ : եւ ապա նաբոդենոս՝ ամս էժ :  Առ որով կիւրոս կամբիւսեայ զօրաժողով եղեւ ՚ի վերայ երկրին բաբելացւոց :  Որում ՚ի դիմի հարաւ նաբոդեանոս , եւ մատնեալ ՚ի պարտութիւն՝ լինէր փախստական . 
After Nebuchadnezzar, his son Amilmarudoch became king for 12 years.  He is called Evilmerodach in the Hebrew histories.  Polyhistor says that after him, Neglissar ruled the Chaldaeans for 4 years, and then Nabonidus for 17 years.  In his reign, Cyrus the son of Cambyses led an army against the land of the Babylonians.  Nabonidus met him [in battle], but was defeated and put to flight. 
 
եւ թագաւորէր բաբէղոնի կիւրոս ամս . թ : 
Then Cyrus became king of Babylon, for 9 years 
 
Ապա ՚ի դաաս դաշտի յայլ ճակատ մտեալ վախճանէր : Յետ որոյ կամբիւսէս թագաւորէ ամս . ը : 
After Cyrus died in another battle on the (?) plain of the Dahae, Cambyses became king, for 8 years 
 
եւ ապա դարեհ . ամս լզ : 
Then Dareius, for 36 years 
 
Յետ որոյ քսեքսէս , եւ այլ եւս պարից թագաւորք : 
After Dareius came Xerxes and the other Persian kings 
       
Եւ արդ՝ զքալդէացւոց թագաւորնութեանէն՝ որպէս համառօտիւք մի ըստ միոջէ բերոսոս աւանդէ , նոյնպէս եւ զնոյն եւ բազմավէպն վիպագրէ :  Որուք յայտ իսկ է , թէ նաբուքոդոնոսոր գումարեաց զօրս , եւ առ զհրէայս .  եւ ՚ի սամանէ մինչեւ ցկիւրիս պարսից թագաւոր եօթանասնամեայ ժամանակ ժողովի :  էւ եբրայեցւոց պատութիւնն սոցին միաբանէ , թէ հ . ամ եղեւ ՚ի գերութեանն , յառաջնմէ ամէն նաբուքոդոնոսորայ՝ գերութեանն հրէից համարեալ՝ մինչեւ ցկիւրոս պարսից թագաւոր : (46) 
Just as Berossus gives a brief account of each of the Chaldaean kings, so Polyhistor describes them in the same manner.  From what he says, it is clear that Nebuchadnezzar led an army against the Jews and conquered them.  From Nebuchadnezzar until Cyrus the king of the Persians, there is period of 70 years.  (31) The Hebrew histories agree with this, and state that the Jews were in captivity for 70 years, calculating from the first year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar up until Cyrus the king of the Persians. 
 
Զսոյն եւ աբիդենոս միաբան սոցին ՚ի քաղդէացւոց պատմութեանն յայտ արնէ . քանզի եւ նա հանդոյն բազամավիպին՝ պատմէ զայս : 
Abydenus, whose account is similar to Polyhistor (?) in most respects, writes as follows in his History of the Chaldaeans. 
 
Աբիդենեայ վասն առաջին թագաւորութեանն քաղդէացւոց : 
[From the writings] of Abydenus, about the first kings of the Chaldaeans 
Χαλδαίων μὲν τῆς σοφίας πέρι τοσαῦτα. 
Քաղդէացւոց իմաստութէանն աղագաւ այսչափ ինչ : 
That is the end [of my remarks] about the wisdom of the Chaldaeans. 
βασιλεῦσαι δὲ τῆς χώρας πρῶτον λέγεται Ἄλορον,  τὸν δὲ ὐπὲρ ἑαυτοῦ λόγον διδοῦναι, ὅτι μιν τοῦ λεῶ ποιμένα ὁ θεὸς ἀποδείξαι. βασιλεῦσαι δὲ Σάρους ί. Σάρος δὲ ἐστὶ χʹ. καὶ ,γ ἔτεα. Νεῖρος δὲ χʹ. Σῶσος δὲ ξʹ. 
Բայց թագաւորել աշխարհին նախ զաղովրայ ասեն .  այլ վասն իւրոյ անձին նայսչափ (47) ինչ բանք են պատմելոյ . զի զնա ժողովրդեանն ամենախնամն աստւած եցոյց հովիւ . որ թագաւորեաց շարս . ժ : եւ շարն է՝ վ . եւ ո . ամս : եւ ներս ո : եւ սոսն . կ : 
The first king of the region, so they say, was Alorus.  - He spread a report about himself that he had been chosen by god to be the shepherd of the people, and he reigned [over them] for ten sars (a sar is 3,600 years; a ner is 600 years; and a soss is 60 years). 
μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον ἀλάπαρον ἇρξαι (σάροθς γʹ) 
Յետ նորա տիրեաց աղապաւրոս : 
Next, Alaparus 
μέθ’ ὃν Ἀμίλλαρος ἐκ πόλεως Παυτιβίβλιου (ἐβασίλευσε σάρους ιγʹ.)  ἐφ’ οὗ δεύτερον Αννήδοτον τὴν θάλασσαν ἀναδῦναι παραπλήσιον Ὠάννῃ τὴν ἰδέαν ἡμιδαίμονα. 
Յետ որոյ աղմեղովն ՚ի քաղաքէ պաւտիբիբղոն .  առ որով երկրորդ անիդոստոս ել ՚ի ծովնէն՝ համագոյն ովանայն , որոյ կերպարանք կիսադից դիւցազանցն էին : 
Amillarus, from the city of Pautibiblon  - In his reign, a second Annedotus, a kind of demi-god, similar in appearance to Oannes, rose out of the sea. 
μέθ’ ὃν Ἀμμένων (Παυτιβίβλων ἦρξε σάρους ιβʹ.) 
Յետ որոյ ամմէնոն : 
Ammenon 
μέθ’ ὃν Μεγάλορος (ἐκ Παυτιβίβλων ἦξε σάρους ιή.) 
Յետ որոյ ամեգաղորոս : 
Magalanus 
εἶτα Δαὼς ποιμὴν (ἐκ Παυτιβίβλων ἐβασίλευσε σάρους ί.)  ἐφ οὗ δʹ. διφυεῖς εἰς γῆν ἐκ θαλάσσης ἀνέδθσαν. (ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα ταῦτα) Ἐυέδωκος, Ἐνεύγαμος, Ἐνάβουλος. Ἀνήμεντος. 
Ապա դաւոնոն հովիւ .   առ որով չորքն երկկերպիք ՚ի ծովէ ՚ի ցամաք դիմեցին՝ իովդոկոսն , էնեւգամոսն , էնեւբողոսն , եւ անեմենտոսն : (48) 
The shepherd Daōs  - In his reign, bi-formed creatures came out of the sea onto the land, and their names were: Euedocus, Eneugamus, Eneubulus and Anementus. 
ἐπῖ δὲ τοῦ μετὰ ταῦτα Ἀεδωρέσχου  Ἀνώδαφος. 
Եւ առ էդովրէսքաւ ,  որ յետ նորայն թագաւրեաց , անոդափոսն : 
Euedoreschus  - In his reign, Anodaphus [came out of the sea]. 
μέθ’ ὃν ἄλλοι τε ἦρξαν, καὶ Σίσουθρος … 
Յետ որոյ այլք տիրեցաին , եյ քսիսութրոս : 
After him, there were other rulers, and finally Sisuthrus 
 
Եւ քանզի այսոքիւք՝ յիշատակեալ պատմագիրս՝ միաբանս բազմավիպին գայ . եւ զջրհեղեղէն սոյնօրինակ գրէ : 
After agreeing with Polyhistor in such matters, this historian then writes about the flood in the same way. 
 
Աբիդենեայ վասն ջրհեղեղին : 
[From the writings] of Abydenus, about the flood 
Μεθ’ ὃν ἄλλοι τε ἦρξαν, καὶ Σείσιθτρος, ᾧ δὴ Κρόνος προσημαίνει μὲν ἔσεσθαι πλῆθος ὄμβρων, Δεσίου πέμπτῃ ἐπὶ δέκα,  κελεύει δὲ πᾶν ὃ, τι γραμμάτων ἦν ἐχόμενον, ἐν Ἡλίου πόλει τῇ ἐν Σιππάροισιν ἀποκρύψαι.  Σείσιθρος δὲ ταῦτα ἐπιτελέα ποιήσας, εὐθέως ἐπ’ Ἀρμενίους ἀνάπλεε,  καὶ παραυτίκα μιν κατελάμβανε τὰ ἐκ ϴεοῦ.  Τρίτῃ δὲ ἡμέρῃ, ὧν ἐκόπασε, μετήει τῶν ὀρνίθων πείρην ποιεύμενος, εἴπου γῆν ἴδοιεν τοῦ ὕδατος ἐκδῦσαν.  αἱ δὲ ἐκδεχομένου σφέας Πελάγος ἀχανέος, ἀπορέουσαι ὅκη κατορμήσονται, παρὰ τὸν Σείσοθρον ὀπισω κομίζονται,  καὶ ἐπ’ αὐτῇσιν ἕτεραι.  ὡς δὲ τῇσι τρίτῃσιν εὐτύχεν, ἀπίκατο γὰρ δὴ πηλοῦ κατάπλεοι τοὺς ταρσοὺς, Θεοί μιν ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἀφανίζουσιν.  τὸ δὲ πλοῖον ἐν Ἀρμενίῃ περίαπτα ξύλων ἀλεξιφάρμακα τοῖσιν ἐπιχωρίοισι παρείχετο. 
Յետ որոյ այլք տիրեցին , եւ քսիսութրոս . որում կռոնոս յարաջագոյն գուշակեաց լինել յաճախու(49)թիւն անձրեւաց ՚ի հինգերորդումն դէսիոս ամնոյ , որ է մարերի :  Հրաման տայ՝ զմատեանն ամենայն յարեդ քաղաք սիպարացւոց թաքուցանել.  Եւ իբրեւ սիսիթրոս զայն ՚ի գլուխ համեալ վճարէր , մինչդեռ առագաստ ձգեալ նաւարկել ՚ի հայս կամէին ,  յանկարծակի հասանէին նաւավարքն յաստւածայ :  Յերրորդ աւուր՝ յարժամ անձրեւքն ցածնուին , արձակէր հաւս ինչ ՚ի հաւոց , դէտակն կալեալ՝ եթէ կարիցեն զերկիր փարատեալ ՚ի բազմուտեանէ ջուրցն տեսանել :  Եւ նոցա յածեալ ընդ ան(50)հուն համատարած ծովն ծփանաց՝ չգտանէին ուրեք ոտից դադար . անդրէն առ սիսիթրոս յետս դարձեալ դիմէին .  եւ դադարեալ այլ  եւս երիս աւուրս՝դարձեալ արձակէր . եւ եկեալ , կաւով թաթափ զմագիլսն բերէին : Եւ անդէն վաղվաղակի դիքն զնա ՚ի մարդկանէ հետակորոյս առնէին .  եւ նաւն երթեալ յաշխարհն հայոց դադարէր . եւ ՚ի փայտիցն դել օգնականութեան բնակչաց աշխարհին պարդեւէր : 
After him, there were other kings, including Sisuthrus, to whom Cronus foretold that there would be a great torrent of rain on the fifteenth day of the month of Daesius.  Cronus ordered him to conceal all the books which were kept in Heliopolis, the city of the Sippareni.  Sisuthrus did as instructed, and then he sailed away to Armenia.  Immediately it began to happen as the god had foretold.  (33) On the third day, when the rain eased, Sisuthrus sent out some birds, to test if they could see any land rising up out of the sea.  But they found nothing except a gaping wide sea, and, having nowhere to rest, they flew back to Sisuthrus.  The same thing happened when [he sent] some other birds.  But he achieved success with the third set of birds, who came back with mud splattered on the bottom of their feet, and then the gods removed him from the sight of men.  The inhabitants of Armenia made wooden amulets out of his ship, as a protection against poisons. 
     
Եւ զի այսիւ եւ աբիդէնոս ըզնոյն ձեւ բանից եբրայեցւոց պատմութեանն զջրհեղեղէն միաբանէ , թուի ինձ թէ ամենեցուն իսկ յայտ է :  Իսկ եթէ զի յոյնք էին պատմագիրքն կամ կամ քըղդէացիք , եւ այլով անուամբ զնոյ անուանեցին՝ քսիսութրոս կոչելով , ընդ այն չէ՛ ինչ պարտ զարմանալ :  Եւ եթէ դիս ըստ իւրեանց սովորութեանն փոխանակ աստւածոյ յորջորջեցին , եւ զաղաւնւոյն լռեցին՝ եւ հաւս խառնիխուռն անուանեցին՝ , եւ ընդ այն չէ՛ ինչ պարտ (51) կարի զարմանալ : 
I think that it will be obvious to everyone that what Abydenus says about the flood is similar to the story of the Hebrews, and uses the same form of words.  That these historians, whether they are Greeks or Chaldaeans, give Noah a different name, and call him Sisuthrus, is hardly surprising.  Nor is it surprising that, as is their custom, they refer to gods rather than God, and talk about birds in general without mentioning a dove. 
   
Եւ զայս աբիդէնոս ՚ի քաղդէացւոց պատմութեանն զջրհեղեղէն :  Նոյն եւ վասն աշտարակագործութէանն՝ միաբան մովսիսի պատմութէանն գրէ զայս ձեւ օրինակի : 
That then is what Abydenus says about the flood in this History of the Chaldaeans.  He also writes about the building of the tower, in a way which is similar to the account of Moses, as follows. 
Ἀπὸ τῆς Ἀβυδηνοῦ γραφῆς περὶ τῆς τοῦ Πύργου κατασκευῆς. 
Աբիդենեայ վասն աշտարակագործութէանն : 
[From the writings] of Abydenus, about the building of the tower 
Ἐν τῇ δὴ λέγουσι τοὺς πρώτους (ἐκ γῆς) ἀνασχὀντας, καὶ δὴ Θεῶν καταφρονήσαντας ἀμείνονας εἶναι,  Πύργων τύρσιν ἡλίβατον ἀείρειν, ἵνα νῦν Βαβυλών ἐστιν. ἤδη τε ἆσσον εἶναι τοῦ οὐρανου.  καὶ τοὺς ἀνέμους, θεοῖσι βωθέντας, ανατρέψαι περὶ αὐτοῖσι τὸ μηχάνημα.  τοῦ δῆ τὰ ἐρείπεα λέγεσϑαι Βαβυλῶνα.  τέως δὲ ὄντας ὁμογλώσσους ἐκ θεῶν πολύθρα φωνὴν ἐνείκασθαι,  μετὰ δὲ Κρόνῳ τε καὶ Τιτῆνι συστῆναι πόλεμον … 
Յորում ասեն դիպեալ արաջնոցն զօրութեամբ եւ յաղթանդամութեամբ յուզացեալք , մինչեւ ըզդիսն եւս անգոսնել , եւ յանպիտանութիւն հատանել :  Սկսանէին ըզ(52)բարձրաբերձ զբուրգնն կանգնել , որ այժմ բաբելոն կոչի . եւ իբերւ մօտ յերկինս հասուցանէին դիցն ,  այնուհետեւ հոլմոց դից օգնական լեալ՝ մղէին եւ յերկիր կործանէին զմենքենուոր գործն անարեացն .  եւ յատակն կործանեալ՝ բաբեղոն անուանէր :  Որ զայս վայր միաշուրթն համալեզուք եին , եւ ՚ի դիցն բազմարոխ խառնախօս խըղուըրտի՛ւն ՚ի միաբանեալսն եկեալ մտանէր : (53)  Եւ յետ այնորիկ կրովնն ՚ի տիտանն մարտ պատերազմի ընդ միմեանս բախէին : 
They say that the first men at that time were puffed up with pride because of their strength and height, and in their arrogance they thought that they were better than the gods.  They built a huge tower where Babylon now is, and it was already close up to heaven.  But the winds came to the aid of the gods, and threw down the structure around them.  The remains of the tower were called Babylon.  Up to that time they had shared a common language but then they received a great variety of different speech from the gods.  Afterwards a war arose between Cronus and Titan. 
 
Դարձեալ նոյն այր եւ զսինեքերիբայ յիշատակէ՝պէս զայս օրինակ : 
(35) The same author writes about Sennacherib, as follows. 
 
Աբիւդենեայ վասն նաբուքոդոնոսրայ : 
[From the writings] of Abydenus, about Sennacherib 
         
յայնմ ժամանակի քսաներորդ եւ հինգերորդ՝ սինեքերիբ ո՛ւր ուրեմն ՚ի թագաւորելոցն գտանէր .  որ զբաեղոնն ՚ի ներքոյ ձեռին նուաժեալ հնազանդէր .  եւ ՚ի ծովեզերին կիղիկեացւոց նավամարտիկ նաւացն յունաց վանեալ վկանէր .  եւ շինէր եւ զմեհեանն աթենացւոց , արձանս պղնձիս կանգնեալ , եւ գրով բայ ասէ զքաջութիւնսն դրոշմէր .  և զտարսոս զև և զօրինակ բաբիղոնի շինէր . զի և ընդ մէջ տարսոսի գետն կիւդնոս անցանիցէ , որպէս գունակ արածանւոյ ընդ մէջ բաբէղոնի : 
At this time, Sennacherib became the 25th of the [Assyrian] kings.  He conquered Babylon and brought it under his control.  He defeated a fleet of Greek ships in a naval battle off the coast of Cilicia.  He established a temple of the Athenians, and erected bronze columns on which he inscribed in writing his mighty achievements.  He built Tarsus with a design which was similar to Babylon, so that the river Cydnus flows through the middle of Tarsus, just as the Euphrates flows through the middle of Babylon. 
             
Ըստ նմանէ և յետ նորա ներգիղոս թագաւորեաց . որ յորդւոյն ադրամելեայ վաճանէր .  և զնա նորին եղբայր ասերդին միահայր , և ոչ համամայտ՝ սպանանէր .  և հալածական զզօրականն ՚ի բւիզանտացուց քաղաքն արակաէր :  Որ նախ վարձկանութիւն օգնականութեան ինքեան գումարէր .  յորոց մի ոմն էր (54) պիւթագորաս՝ քաղդէացւոց իմաստութեանն աշակերտ :  Այլ աքսերդիսն զեգիպտոս և զկողմանս խոր ասորւոց կալեալ շահէր .  յորմէ և սարդանապաղղոսն էր . 
After him Nergilus became king, but he was killed by his son Adramelus.  Then Adramelus was killed by Axerdis, his half-brother (by the same father, but a different mother).  Axerdis gathered an army and sent it against the city of Byzantium.  He was the first king to seek help from mercenaries,  and one of these was Pythagoras, who became a student of Chaldaean wisdom.  Axerdis conquered Egypt and parts of lower Syria.  Then Sardanapallus was [king]. 
         
Յետ որոյ սարդանակոսն ասորեստանեաց թագաւորէր . ՚ի վերայ հասեալ՝ թէ զօր խարռնիճաղանճ ՚ի ծովէ ՚ի վերայ խաղաց ելանել . զբուսաղոսսարոս զօրավար վաղվաղակի ՚ի բաբեղոն արաքէր :  Եւ նորա՝ խորհորդ ապաստամբութեան խորհեալ . զաժդահակայ զմարաց նահապետի զամուհեան դուստր՝ իւրում որդւոյ նաբուկադրոսսորայ խօսէր կնութէան :  Եւ յետ այնորիկ փութանակի չուէր խաղայր հասանել ՚ի վերայ նինեայ , որ է նինուէ քաղաք :  Ազդ լինէր վասն այնր ամենայնի՝ սարակայ արքայի . հրչիգ առնէր առնէր զարքունիսն եւովրիտայ :  Իսկ նաբուկոդրոսսորայ առեալ զիշխանութեիւն թագաւորութեանն՝ ամուր պարըսպաւ զբաեղոն պատէր : 
Then Saracus became king of the Assyrians, (37) and when he was informed that an army like a swarm of locusts had invaded by sea, he immediately sent his general Nabopolassar [Busalossorus] to Babylon.  But this general started to plot rebellion, and betrothed his son Nebuchadnezzar [Nabuchodonosor] to Amytis the daughter of Astyages, the king of the Medes.  And then he immediately set off to attack the city of Nineveh.  When king Saracus learned of the attack, he burnt down the palace with himself inside it.  Nebuchadnezzar took over power as king, and put up a strong wall around Babylon. 
 
Եւ յետ նոցին բանից աբիդենոս և որ ինչ իրք զնաբուքոդոնոսորայ իցեն՝ միաբանս եբրայեցւոց գրոցն յոինեալ կարգէ՝ պէս զայս օրինակ : (55) 
After saying this, Abydenus gives an account of Nebuchadnezzar, which agrees with the writings of the Hebrews, as follows. 
 
Աբիւդենեայ վասն նաբուքոդոնոսրայ : 
[From the writings] of Abydenus, about Nebuchadnezzar 
Ναβοχοδονόσορος δὲ διαδεξάμενος τὴν ἀρχὴν, Βαβυλῶνα μὲν ἐτείχισε τριπλῷ περιβόλῳ, ἐν πεντεκαίδεκα ἡμέρῃσι,  τόν τε Ἀρμακάλην ποταμὸν ἐξήγαγεν, ἐόντα κέρας Ἐθφρητέω, τόν τε Ἀκράκακον.  ὐπὲρ δὲ τῆς Σιππαρηνῶν πόλιος, λάκκον ὀρυξάμενος, περίμετρον μὲν τεσσαράκοντα παρασαγγέων, βάθος δ’ ὀργθιέων εἴκοσι,  πύλας ἐπέστησεν, τὰς ἀνοίγοντες ἄρδεσκον τὸ πεδίον.  καλέουσι δ’ αὐτὰς ἐχετογνωμόνας.  ἐπετείχε δὲ καὶ τῆς ἐρυθρῆς θαλάσσης τὴν ἐπίκλυσιν, καὶ Τερηδόνα πόλιν ἔκτισεν, κατὰ τὰς Ἀράβων εἰσβολάς.  τά τε βασιλήϊα δένδροις ἤσκησε, κρεματοὺς παραδείσους ὀνομάσας … 
Նաբուկոդրոսսորայ առեալ զիշխանութիւնն՝ զբաբեղոն պարսպէր պարսապով , եւ երեքկին պատուարաւ , հանգոյն կնգետասանից աւուրց ժամանակաւ .  եւ զգետն արմակաղէս յարածանուայ հանեալ տամէր . եւ զջըրհոր բարձրաւանգակին բարձրաւանգակին ,  որ առ սիպարացւոց քաղաքին, շուրջ փորեաց՝ խ. հրասախ . եւ խորութիւն՝ ի . գիրկ :  եւ դրունս կանգնեաց, որ բանայցեն, եւ զբնաւ դաշտն առոգանիցեն .  եւ անուն կոչի դրանցն էքէտոգնոմոնաս . որպէս թէ կամս ինչ եւ յօժա(56)րութիւն յանձնէ ունիցին :  Պարըսպեաց եւ զկարմիր ծովու զելր յաղեաց ծփանաց : Եւ զտէրեդոն քաղաք շինեաց ՚ի մուտս աշխարհին արաբացւոց :  Եւ զարքունինս՝ մատաղատունկ անկովք ծառոց զարդարեաց . եւ ասուն կոչեաց կախազանաբուրաստանս : 
When Nebuchadnezzar came to power, he fortified Babylon with a three-fold circuit of walls in about fifteen days.  He made a channel for the river Narmalacis, a branch of the Euphrates, [(?) and the Acracanus].  (39) He dug a reservoir above the city of the Sippareni, which was 40 parasangs in circumference, and 20 fathoms deep;  and he constructed gates, which could be opened to irrigate the whole plain.  They call these gates ochetognomones.  He protected [the shore] against flooding by the Red Sea, and he built the city of Teredon [to guard] against the raids of the Arabs.  He adorned the palace with new kinds of plants, and called it “The Hanging Gardens". 
   
Եւ ապա մի ըստ միոջէ մեկնութիւն ընձայեցուցանէ անուանելոյ կախաղանաւոր բուրաստանին .  զոր ասէ՝ եւ յոյնք յանուանելոց յեօթն չքնաղ հրաշակերտիցն համարին  
Then he gives a detailed description of this Hanging Garden.  He says that the Greeks regard it as one of the so-called seven wonders of the world. 
  … λέγεται δὲ πάντα μὲν ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὕδωρ εἶναι, θάλασσαν καλεομένην.  … λέγεται δὲ πάντα μὲν ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὕδωρ εἶναι, θάλασσαν καλεομένην.  καὶ Βαβυλῶνα τείχει περιβαλεῖν. τῷ χρόνῳ δὲ τῷ ἰκνευμἐνῳ ἀφανισθαι.  τείχισαι δὲ αὖθις Ναβουχοδονόσορον τὸ μέχρι τῆς Μακεδονίων ἀρχῆς διαμεῖνειν ἐὸν χαλκόπυλον … 
Եւ դարձեալ ՚ի միւսուն վայրի նոյն այր պատմէ՝ ձեւ զայս օրինակ . (57)  Ամենայն ինչ ասէ ՚ի սկազանէ ջուր էր , որ անուանեալ կոչէր ծով  եւ բեղոսն ցածուցանէր զնոսա . եւ իւրաքանչիւր աշխարհս բաժանէր տայր .  եւ զբաբեղոն պարսպեալ պատեալ ամրացուցանէր . եւ իբրեյ բալական ժամանակք ՚ի վերայ անցեալ յերկարէին , եղծանէր :  Զորոց միւսանգամ նաբուկադրոսորոս պարսպէր . եւ տեւէր բաւէր մինչեւ ՚ի ժամանակս մակեդոնացւոցն իշխանու†եան՝ հանդերձ դրօքն պղնձակերաիւք : 
And in another place the same author writes as follows:  “It is said that in the beginning everything was water, which was called the sea.  But Belus restrained [the sea] and assigned a region to each person.  He surrounded Babylon with a wall, and at the appointed time he disappeared from sight.  Later Nebuchadnezzar gave Babylon new walls, with gates of bronze, which lasted until the time of the Macedonians.” 
(…. ὡς ἄρα Ναβουχοδονόσορ …. μεγαφρονήσας, ἀπηυθαδίσατο εἰπὼν,)  οὐχ αὕτη ἐστι Βαβυλὼν ἡ μεγάλη, ἣν ἐγὼ ὠκοδόμησα εἰς οἶκον Βασιλείας, ἐν τῷ κράτει τῆς ἰσχύος μου, εἰς τιμὴν τῆς δόξης μου …. 
Զամենայն աբիդենոս հանդոյն դանիէղի միպագրէ . յորում ճառեալ պատմի զնաբուքոդոնոսորայ եթէ սմբարհաւաճեալ մեծամտեալ ասեր ,  ո՞չ այս է բաբելոն մեծ , զոր (58) ես շինեցի ՚ի բնակութիւն թագաւորութեան՝ զօրութեամբ բռնութեան իմոյ , եյ ՚ի պատիւ փառաց իմոց : 
The words of Daniel are in accordance with everything that Abydenus says. In his book [Dan 4’30] he relates how Nebuchadnezzar, becoming arrogant and puffed up with pride, declared;  “Is this not the great Babylon I have built as the royal residence, by my mighty power and for the glory of my majesty?” 
    Μεγασθένης δέ φησι, Ναβουκοδρόσορον Ἡρακλέως ἀλκιμώτερον γεγονότα, ἐπί τε Λιβύην καὶ Ἰβηρίην στρατεῦσαι.  ταύτας δὲ χειρωσάμενον, ἀπόδασμον αὐτέων εἰς τὰ δεξιὰ τοῦ Πόντου κατοικίσα.  μετὰ δὲ, λέγεται πρὸς Χαλδαίων, ὡς ἀναβὰς ἐπὶ τὰ Βασιλήϊα, κατασχεϑειη ϴεῷ.  ὃτεῳ δὴ, φθγξάμενος δὲ εἶπε οὕτως. ἐγὼ Ναβουκοδρόσορος, ὦ Βαβυλώνιοι, τὴν μέλλουσαν ὑμῖν προαγγέλλω συμφορὴν. 
Եւ քանզի իշխանութիւն իւրոյ բարութեան վկայէր , այնպիսի բանիւք ճառեալ զնաբուքոդոնոսորայ ՚ի դանիէղ մարգարէէ .  լո՛ւր եւ աբիդենեայ . քան զհերակղէս ասէ եւ՛ս զօագոյն էր . որ եւ գրէ իսկ՝ պէս զայս օրինակ բանից :  Մածազօրն ասէ , Նաբուկոդրոս(59)սորոս , որ ուժգնանոյն էր քան ըզհերակլէս ՚ի լիբէացւոց եւ ձիբերացւոց աշխարհն զօրաժողով լիեալ հասանէր .  եւ վանեալ վկանդեալ ընդ ձեռամբ նուաճէր . եւ զմասն մի ՚ի նոցանէն յառաջակողմն պոնտոս ձովու տարեալ բնակեցուցանէր :  Եւ ապա յետ այնորիկ պատմի ՚ի քաղդէացւոց , թէ իբրեւ եկն եհաս անգրէն յարքունիսն, դից իրիք մտեալ կալեալ զմիտսն ,  խոսէր ձեւ զայս որինակ , թէ ես նաբուկոդրոսորոս ո՞վ քաջքդ բաբեղացիք՝ զվիշտս ինչ որ ջեզ հասանելոց իցեն՝ յառաջագոյն (60) պարմեցից . 
That Nebuchadnezzar regarded his power as proof of his good fortune, is made clear the words of the prophet Daniel.  - And Abydenus declares that he was “mightier than Heracles “, when he writes as follows: (41)  “Megasthenes says that Nebuchadnezzar, who was mightier than Heracles, led his armies as far as Libya and Iberia.  He conquered these countries, and settled some of their inhabitants on the right-hand shore of the Euxine Sea.  But the Chaldaeans say that afterwards, when he went up to the palace, he was possessed by some god,  and uttered these words: ‘O Babylonians, I Nebuchadnezzar predict that a great disaster will befall you.’” 
  … ὀ μὲν ϑεσπίσας παραχρῆμα ἠφάνιστο. ὀ δὲ οἱ παῖς Εὐιλμαλούροθχος ἐβασίλεθε.  τὸν δ’ ὁ κηδεστὴς ἀποκτίνας Νηριγλσάρης, λεῖπε παῖδα Λαβασσοάρασλον.  τούτου δὲ ἁποϑανόντος βιαίῳ μόρῳ, Ναβαννίδοχον ἀποδείκνυσι Βασιλέα, προσήκοντα οἱ οὐδὲν.  τῷ δὲ Κῦρος, ἑλὼν Βαβυλῶνα, Καρμανίης ἡγεμονίην δωρέεται …  
եւ այլ ինչ մի ըստ միոջէ ՚ի նոյն յարեալ պատմէ : Յետ որոյ զնոքումբք ածեալ մատենագիրն խօսի ,  թէ՝ որ ճոխութեամբն իմն հրամանս տայր , յանկարծակի անհետ յաչաց կորնչէր : Եւ նորին որդի ամիղմարովդոկոս թագաւորէր .  զոր իւրն անդէն փեսայն նիգղիսարիս ոպանանէր : Որոյ մի որդի մնայր ՚ի կեանս ղաբոսսորակոս .  եւ նմա հասանէր վրիպակ բռնութեան օրհա(61)սիւ մեռանել . զնաբոնէդոքոս ՚ի բաձ թագաւորութեանն հասուցանել հըրամայէր , որ չէ՛ր ինչ նմա ամենեւին :  Որում կիւրո՝ իբրեւ կալաւ զբաբէղոն , զկրմանից աշխարհին զմարզպանութիւնն շնորէր . դարեհ արքայ յաշխարհէն վտարեաց ինչ : 
After adding some more details about this, the historian continues:  “When he had (?) uttered this prediction, he immediately vanished from sight, and his son Amilmarudocus became king in his place.  But Amilmarudocus was killed by his kinsman Niglisares, leaving a son called Labassoarascus.  When he too died a violent death, they proclaimed Nabannidochus as king, although he had no right to assume royal power.  When Cyrus captured Babylon, he made Nabannidochus the governor of Carmania; but king Dareius took some of the territory away from him. 
           
եւ այն ամենայն միաբան է եբրայակիր գըրոցն :  ՚Ի դանիէղի պատմութիւնսն զնաբուքոդոնոսորայ պատնի , թէ զիա՛րդ եւ ո՛րդունակ անկաւ ՚ի մտաց :  Իսկ եթէ յունաց մատենագիրք կամ քաղդէացիք զախտն բարեքեն , եւ յաստւածայ կալեալ ասեն զնմանէն ,  եւ աստւծայ անուանեն զմոլութիւնն՝ որ եմուտ ՚ի նա , կամ զդեւ ինչ՝ զարմանք :  Քանզի այս իսկ եւ բա՛րք են նածա՝ զայնպիսի ինչ զամենայն յաստւած սահմանել , եւ աստուա՛ծս զդեւս անուանել :  Զայս ամենայն աբիւդենսո : 
All this is in accordance with what is said in the Hebrew scriptures.  (43) The book of Daniel tells how and in what way Nebuchadnezzar was afflicted in his mind.  The Greek historians and the Chaldaeans turn his suffering to good account, by calling the madness a god who entered into him, or some demon which came to him.  But this is not surprising,  because it is their custom to attribute all such occurrences to a god, and to call the demons gods.  All this is related by Abydenus. 
 
Այղ եւ փղաւիոսն յովսեպոս՝ հրէիցն վիպապատում մատենագիրն , յառաջնում նախնեաց պատմութեանն՝ միաբան նոցին յիշատակեալ գրէ՝ ձեւ զա՛յս օրինակ . (62) 
Flavius Josephus, the Jewish historian, gives a similar account in the first book of his Antiquities [Ap 1’128-160], as follows: 
 
Եւ յովսեպայ յառաջին նախնեաց պատմութեանե զնաբուխոդոնոսսորայ : 
From the first book of the Antiquities of Josephus, about Nebuchadnezzar 
Λέξω δὲ νῦν ἦδη τὰ παρὰ Χαλδαίοις ἀναγεγραμμένα καὶ ἱστορούμενα περὶ ἡμῶν, ἅπερ ἔχει πολλὴν ὁμολογίαν καὶ περὶ τῶν ἄλλων τοῖς ἡμετέροις γράμμασι.  μάρτυς δὲ τούτων Βηρωσσὸς ἀνὴρ Χαλδαῖος μὲν τὸ γένος, γνώριμος καὶ τοῖς περὶ παιδείαν ἀναστρεφομένοις,  ἐπειδὴ περί τε ἀστρονομίας, καὶ περὶ τῶν παρὰ Χαλδαίοις φιλοσοφουμένων αὐτὸς εἰς τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἐξήνεγκε τὰς συγγραφάς.  Οὕτος τοίνυν ὁ Βηρωσσὸς ταῖς ἀρχαιοτάταις ἐπακολουθῶν ἀναγραφαῖς, περί τε τοῦ γενομένου κατακλυσμοῦ καὶ τῆς ἐν αὐτῷ φθορᾶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων, καθάπερ Μωϋσῆς οὕτος ἱστόρηκε.  καὶ περὶ τῆς λάρνακος, ἐν ᾗ Νῶχος ὁ τοῦ γένους ἡμῶν ἀρχηγὸς διεσώθη, προενχθείσης αὐτῆς ταῖς ἀκρωρείαις τῶν Ἀμενίων ὀρῶν.  εἶτα τοὺς ἀπὸ Νώχου καταλέγων, καὶ τοὺς χρόνους αὐτοῖς προσθεὶς, ἐπὶ Ναβολάσσαρον παραγίνεται, τὸν Βαβυλῶνος καὶ Χαλδαίων βασιλέα,  καὶ τὰς τούτου πράξεις ἀφηγούμενος λέγει, τίνα τρόπον πέμπψας ἐπὶ τὴν Αἴγυπτον καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν ἡμετέραν γῆν υἱὸν τὸν ἑαυτοῦ Ναβουχοδονόσορον μετὰ πολλῆς δυνάμεως,  ἐπειδήπερ ἀφεστῶτας αὐτοὺς ἐπύθετο, …. πάντων ἐκράτησε,  καὶ τὸν ναὸν ἐνέπρησε τὸν ἐν Ιεροσολύμοις, ὅλως τε πάντα τὸν παρ’ ἡμῶν λαὸν ἀναστήσας, εἰς Βαβυλῶνα μετώκισεν.  συνέβη δὲ καὶ τὴν πόλιν ἐρημωθῆναι χρόνον ἐτῶν ἑβδομήκοντα, μέχρι Κύρου τοῦ Περσῶν βασιλέως,  κρατῆσαι δὲ φησὶ τὸν Βαβυλώνιον Αἰγύπτου, Συρίας, Φοινίκης, Ἀραβίας, πάντας δὲ ὑπερβαλλόμνον ταῖς πράξεσι τοὺς πρὸ αὐτοῦ Χαλδαίων καὶ Βαβυλωνίων βεβασιλευκότας …. 
Ճառեցից ասէ այժմիկ զառ ՚ի քըղդէացւոց մի ըստ միոջէ զմէնջ գըրեալսն եւ զապատմեայս . յորս կայ բազմում միաբանութիւն եւ առ ա՛յլ եւս մեր գիրս :  Եւ վկայ այսոցիկ բերոսոս է՝ այր քաղդէացի յազգէ , եւ երեւելի յամենեսին , որք զխրատու եւ զիմաստութեամբ գային .  քանզի եւ զաստեղագիտութեանն մատեանս , (63) եւ որ ինչ ՚ի քաղդէից ճարտարութիւն իմաստութեան պատմէր , նա եհան ՚ի յունաց լեզու :  Նոյն իսկ բերոսոսն մտագիւր ըզհետ երթէալ առաջնոցն մատենից՝ վասն ջրհեղեղին եւ բնաջինջ մարդկան ապականութեանն լինելոյ՝ ըզնոյն ձեւ ըստ նովսիսի պատնութեանն վիպագրեաց .  եւ վասն արկղակերտ տապանին՝ որով նովքոս նախնին մերոյ ազգիս ապրեցաւ , եւ երթեալ զադարի ՚ի գլուքս լերանց հայաստան աշխարհին :  Եւ ապա մի ըստ միոջէ ՚ի մովքայ համարեալ , եւ զնոցին ժամանակսն յաւելեայ , ՚ի մաբուպաղսարոս ՚ի բաբէղոնի եւ քաղդէացւոց թագաւորն եկեալ հասանէ .  եւ զնորա զիրս եւ զարւութիւնս պատմեալ , ապա ասէ՝ թէ յո՛ր իրս եւ յինչ միտս առաքեաց յերկիրն եգիպտացւոց , եւ ՚ի մեր աշխարհս (64) զիւրուրոյն որդին նաբուկոդրոսորոս յաճախագունդ զօրօք՝ բազմատարած բանակօք :  Քանզի ազգ լինէր նմա , թէ յապստամբութիւն մտաբերեցին բնակիչք աշխարհին , եկեալ հասեալ ամենեցուն շահեալ տերէն .  եւ զտաճարն երուսաղէմի հրձիգ արարեալ եղծանէր . եւ զամենայն զմերազգեայ ժողովուտդն խախտեալ՝ ՚ի բաբեղացւոց երկիրն բնակեցուցանէր :  Դէպ եւ պատահարք հասանէին քաղաքին աւերել , տաճարին եղծանել՝ եօթանասնամեայ ժամանակ , մինչեւ ցկիւրոս առաջին պարսից թագաւոր :  Տիրել ասէ բաբեղացւոյն եգիպտացւոց աշխահին եւ ասորւոց եւ փիւնիկեացւոց եւ արաբացւոց , անցեալ զանցեալ զամենեքումբք արւութեամբ եւ քաջութեամբ, որ նախ քան զնա քաղդէացւոց եւ բաբելացւոց թագաւորեցին : 
I will now relate what has been written about us in the Chaldaean histories, which closely agree with our scriptures on various points.  Berossus shall be witness to what I say: he was by birth a Chaldaean, well known by the learned,  on account of his publication for Greek readers of books on Chaldaean astronomy and philosophy.  This Berossus, therefore, following the most ancient records of that nation, describes in the same way as Moses the flood, and the destruction of mankind which it caused.  He also gives us an account of the ark in which Noah, the forefather of our race, was preserved, when it was brought to the highest part of the Armenian mountains.  Then he gives us a list of the descendants of Noah, with their dates; and at length comes down to Nabopolassar, who was king of Babylon, and of the Chaldaeans.  And in his narrative of the acts of this king, he describes how he sent his son Nebuchadnezzar against Egypt, and against our land, with a great army,  when he was informed that they had revolted from him. (45) After he had subdued them all,  and destroyed our temple at Jerusalem by fire, he removed our people entirely out of their own country, and transported them to Babylon.  Then our city was deserted for a period of seventy years, until the days of Cyrus king of Persia.  He adds that this Babylonian king conquered Egypt, and Syria, and Phoenicia, and Arabia, and exceeded in his exploits all the kings who had reigned before him in Babylon and Chaldaea. 
αὐτὰ δὲ παραθήσομαι τὰ τοῦ Βηρωσσοῦ τοῦτον ἔχοντα τὸν τρόπον.  Ἀκούσας δ᾽ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ Ναβολάσσαρος, ὅτι ὁ τεταγμένος σατράπης ἔν Αἰγύπτῳ καὶ τοῖς περὶ τὴν Συρίαν καὶ τὴν Φοινίκην τόποις ἀποστάτης αὐτοῦ γέγονεν,  οὐ δυνἀμενος αὐτὸς ἔτι κακοπαθεῖν, συστήσας τῷ υἱῷ Ναβουχοδονοσόρῳ ὄντι ἐν ἡλικίᾳ μέρη τινα τῆς δυνάμεως, ἐξέπεμψεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν.  συμμίξας δὲ Ναβουχοδονὀσορος τῷ ἀποστἀτῃ, καὶ παραταξάμενος, αὐτοῦ τε ἐκυρίευσεν,  καὶ τὴν χώραν ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὑπὸ τὴν αὐτοῦ βασιλείαν ἐποίησεν.  τῷ δὲ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ συνέβη Ναβολασσάρῳ, κατὰ τοῦτον τὸν καιρὸν ἀῤῥωστήσαντι, ἐν τῇ Βαβυλωνίων πόλει μεταλλάξαι τὸν βίον, ἔτη βεβασιλευκότι εἰκοσιν ἐννέα.  Αἰσθόμενος δὲ μετ’ οὐ πολὺ τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς τελετὴν Ναβουχοδονόσορος, καταστήσας τὰ κατὰ τὴν Αἴγυπτον πράγματα καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν χώραν,  καὶ τοὺς αἰχμαλώτους Ιουδαίων τε καὶ Φοινίκων καὶ Σύρων καὶ τῶν κατὰ τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐθνῶν συντάξας τισὶ τῶν φίλων, μετὰ βαρυτάτης δυνάμεως καὶ τῆς λοιπῆς ὠφελείας ἀνακομίζειν εἰς τὴν Βαβυλωνίαν, (αὐτὸς ὁρμήσας ὀλιγοστὸς παρεγένετο διὰ τῆς ἐρήμου εἰς Βαβυλῶνα).  καταλαβὼν δὲ τὰ πράγματα διοικούμενα ὑπὸ Χαλδαίων, καὶ διατηρουμένην τὴν βασιλείαν ὑπὸ τοῦ βελτίστου αὐτῶν,  κυριεύσας ἐξ ὁλοκλήρου τῆς πατρικῆς ἀρχῆς, τοῖς μὲν αἰχμαλώτοις παραγενόμενος συνέταξεν αὐτοῖς ἀποικίαν ἐν τοῖς ἐπιτηδειοτάτοις τῆς Βαβυλωνίας τόποις ἀποδεῖξαι. 
Զնոյնս գտակաւ զբերոսսայն առընթեր կարդեցից՝ պէս զայս օրինակ .  Ազդ եղեւ հօրն նորա նաբուպաղ(65)սարայ , եթէ շահապն նախարարապետ՝ որ կարգեալ կայր ՚ի վերայ աշխարհին եգիպտացւոց եւ կողմանցըն ասորվոց եւ փիւնիկաստան գաւառացն , կապարճս դարձոյց՝ յետս եկաց յապաստամբութիւն :  Եւ զի չէ՛ր ատակ այնուհետեւ ինքն կշտամբել , գումարեաց եդ ՚ի ձեռին որդւոյն իւրում նաբուկոդրոսորայ , որ այնուհետեւ ՚ո չափ իսկ հասակի հասեալ (66) էր , մասն ինչ ՚ի զօրաց . եւ առաքեաց երթալ ՚ի վեայ :  Երթեալ հասեալ նաբուկոդրոսորոս՝ խումբ գոձեալ տայր պատերաղմ ընդ ապըստամբին , եւ յալթէր .  եւ զաշխարհն՝ որպէս եւ էր իսկ ՚ի բնէ , անդրէն ընդ իւրեանց թագաւորութեանբ նուաճէր :  Իսկ հօրն նորա նաբուպաղսարայ դէպք տային ՚ի բաբեղացւոց քաղաքին , եւ վճարել ըզկեանս , թագաւորեալ ամս . իա :  Զգաստ լինէր յետ բազում ժամանակաց նաուկոդրոսորայ զհօրն (67) վախչանէ . կարգէր յարդարէր զիրս երկրին եգիպտացւոց եւ զայլոցն աշխարհաց ,  եւ զգերին հրէից եւ զփիւնիկեցուց եւ զասորւոց եւ զեգիպտացւոց ազգացն , հրաման տայր ոմանց ՚ի բարեկամացն հարստաբուռն զօրօք եւ զայլ եւս զառ եւ զկահ եւ ըզկաղմած խաղացուցանել ՚ի բաբեղոն :  Երթեալ հասեալ՝ գտանէր նուաճեալ զիրս ամենայն ՚ի քաղդէացւոց , եւ պահեալ նմա զթագաւորութիւն՝ ուրումն ազնուականի ՚ի նոցանէ :  Տիրէր բովանդակ հայրենի իշխանութեան . եւ զգերւոյն հըրաման տայր՝ յազնիւ տեղիս բաբէղացւոց աշխարհին բնակեցուցանել : 
I will set down Berossus' own words, which are as follows:  “Nabopolassar, father of Nebuchadnezzar, heard that the governor whom he had set over Egypt, and over the regions of Coele Syria and Phoenicia, had revolted from him.  Because he was not able to bear the hardships of a campaign, he committed part of his army to his son Nebuchadnezzar, who was then a young man, and sent him against the rebel.  Nebuchadnezzar joined battle with the rebel, and conquered him,  and forced the country to submit to him again.  Meanwhile it happened that his father Nabopolassar fell ill, and died in the city of Babylon, after he had reigned twenty-one years.  When Nebuchadnezzar heard, soon afterwards, that his father Nabopolassar was dead, he set the affairs of Egypt and the other countries in order.  - He committed the captives he had taken from the Jews, and Phoenicians, and Syrians, and inhabitants of Egypt, (47) to some of his friends, that they might conduct them with his heavy-armed forces troops, and the rest of his baggage, to Babylonia.  He himself went in haste, having only a few companions with him, over the desert to Babylon.  When he arrived there, he found that the public affairs were being managed by the Chaldaeans, and that the principal person among them had preserved the kingdom for him. Accordingly, he then took over complete control of his father’s dominions. “He ordered the captives to be placed in colonies in the most suitable places of Babylonia; 
αὐτὸς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ἐκ τοῦ πολέμου λαφύρον τό, τε Βήλου ἰερὸν, καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ κοσμήσας φιλοτίμως,  τὴν τε ὑπάρχουσαν ἐξ ἀρχῆς πόλιν, καὶ ἑτέραν ἔξωθεν προσχαρισάμενος καὶ ἀνακαινέσας, πρὸς τὸ μηκέτι δύνασθαι τοὺς πολιρκοῦντας τὸν ποταμὸν ἀναστρέφοντας ἐπὶ τὴν πόλιν κατασκεθάζειν,  ὑπερβάλετο τρεῖς μὲν τῆς ἔνδον πόλεως περιβόλους, τρεῖς δὲ τῆς ἔξω τούτων,  τοὺς μὲν ἐξ ὀπτῆς πλίνθου καὶ ἀσφάλτου, τοὺς δὲ ἐξ αὐτῆς τῆς πλίνθου.  καὶ τεχίζας ἀξιολόγως τὴν πόλιν, καὶ τοὺς πυλῶνας κοσμήσας ἱεροπρεπῶς,  προσκαεσκεύασεν τοῖς πατρικοῖς βασιλείοις ἕτερα βασίλεια ἐχόμενα ἐκείνων, ὑπεραίροντα ἀνάστημα καὶ τὴν πολλὴν πολυτέλειαν. μακρὰ δ᾽ ἴσως ἔσται ἐάν τις ἐξηγῆται .  πλὴν ὄντα γε εἰς ὑπερβολὴν ὡς μεγάλα καὶ ὑπερήφανα, συντεέσϑη ἡμέραις δεκάπεντε.  Ἐν δὲ τοῖς βασιλείοις τούτοις ἀναλήμματα λίθινα ὑψηλὰ ἀνῳκοδομήσας, καὶ τὴν ὄψιν ἀποδοὺς ὁμοιοτάτην τοῖς ὄρεσι, καταφθτεύσας δένδρεσι παντοδαποῖς ἐξειργάσατο, καὶ κατασκευάσας τὸν καλούμενον κρεμαστὸν παράδεισον,  διὰ τὸ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ ἐπιθυμεῖν τῆς ὁρείας διαθέσεως, τεϑραμμένην ἐν τοῖς κατὰ τὴν Μηδίαν τόποις. 
Եւ ինքն յառէ եւ յաւարէ պատեբաղմին՝ զմեհեանն բեղայ եւ զայլն (68) ամենայն առատութեամբ զադարէր :  եւ ՚ի բուն քաղաքն եւ այլ եւս արտաքըւստ ՚ի ներքս յաւել ջուրքրւ պնդէր զաեզիսն , զի մի եւս լինիցի հնար պաշարոզաց՝ զգետն ՚ի քաղակն դարձուցանել :  Եւ յառելոյր երիս պարիսպս ներքնոյ քաղաքին , եւ երիս արտաքնումն .  եւ զկէս պարըսպացն ՚ի նիւթձուն աղւիւսոյ եւ ՚ի նաւթէ շինէր , եւ զկէսն ՚ի լոկ ազիւսոյ .  եւ պատէր ազնըւագոյնս ըզքաղաքն պարսպօք, եւ զրունսն զարգարէր դիւցազունս :  Եւ այլ արքունիս մօտ ՚ի հայրենի արքունիսն շի(69)նեալ յաւելոյր . զորոց զչափ եւ ըզգեղ եւ զազգի ազգի յօրինուձս հազիւ ոք ուրեք եթէ պատմել կարսացէ .  բայց այնչափ միայն՝ թէ կարի նորակերտ նորանշան մեձապայձառ եւ չնաշխարհիկ գործ էր , եւ կատարեցաւ համօրէն ՚ի հւինգետասան աւուր :  Եւ յարքունիսն աշտարակաքարկութս պարձրաբերձս հանդերձ մահարձանօք շինեալ յօրինէր . եւ զճակատս կողակացն ՚ի նմանութիւն լերանց յարդարէր : եւ աընկեաց ծառս ազգի ազգի . եւ գործեաց եւ կազմեաց զանուանեալ բուրաստանսն կախաղանաւ ,  վասն տենչանաց կնոջն իւրոյ ՚ի լեռնային հովասուն վայբաց , որ ՚ի մարաց աշ(70)զարհին հովասուն սնեալ էր : 
but as for himself, he adorned the temple of Belus, and the other temples, in a magnificent manner, out of the spoils he had taken in this war.  He also rebuilt the old city, and added another to it on the outside. He restored Babylon in such a way, that no-one who should besiege it afterwards might be able to divert the course of river, in order to force an entrance into it.  He achieved this by building three walls about the inner city, and three about the outer city.  Some of these walls he built of burnt brick and bitumen, and some of brick only.  So when he had fortified the city on this grand scale, and had adorned the gates magnificently,  he added a new palace to the one which his father had dwelt in. It was close by it, but was superior in its height, and also in its great splendour. It would require too long a narration, to describe it all in detail.  However, as prodigiously large and magnificent as the palace was, it was finished in only fifteen days.  In this palace he erected very high walks, supported by stone pillars, and by planting what was called a Hanging Garden, and adorning it with all sorts of trees, he gave it the appearance of a mountainous country.  This he did to please his queen, because she had been brought up in Media, and was fond of mountainous scenery.” 
Ταῦτα μὲν οὗτος ἱστόρησε περὶ τοῦ προειρημένου βασιλέως,  καὶ πολλὰ πρὸς τούτοις ἐν τῇ τρίτῃ βίβλιῳ τῶν Χαλδαϊκῶν,  ἐν ῇ μέμφεται τοῖς Ἐλληνικοῖς συγγραφεῦσιν, ὡς μάτην οἰομένοις ὑπὸ Σεμιράμιδος τῆς Ἀσσυρίας κτισθῆναι τὴν Βαβυλῶνα, καὶ τὰ θαμάσια κατασκευασθῆναι περὶ αὐτὴν ὑπ᾽ ἐκείνης ἔργα ψευδῶς γεγρφόσι.  Καὶ κατὰ ταῦτα τὴν μὲν τῶν Χαλδαίων γραφὴν ἀξιόπιστον ἡγητέον.  οὐ μὲν ἀλλὰ κᾲν τοῖς ἀρχαείος τῶν Φοινίκων σύμφωνα τοῖς ὑπὸ Βηρωσσοῦ λεγομένοις ἀναγέγραπται Βαβυλωνίων βασιλέως, ὅτι καὶ τὴν Συρίαν καὶ τὴν Φοινίκην ἅπασαν ἐκεῖνος κατεστρέψατο.  περὶ τούτων γοῦν συμφωνεῖ καὶ Φιλόστρατος ἐν ταῖς ἱστορίαις, μεμνημένος τῆς Τύρου πλιορίας.  καὶ Μεγασθένης ἐν τῇ τετάρτῃ τῶν Ἰνδικῶν, δἴ ἥς ἀποφαίνειν πειρᾶται τὸν προειρημένον βασιλέα τῶν Βαβυλωνίων, Ἠρακλέους ἀνδρείᾳ καὶ μεγέθει πράξεων διενηνοχέναι.  καταστρέψασθαι γὰρ αὐτόν φησι καὶ Λιβύης τὴν πολλὴν καὶ Ἰβηρίαν. 
Զայս ամենայն այսպէս վիպագրեաց զայժմու ճառեալ թագաւորէն .  եւ եւ՛ս բազում ՚ի նոյնս յերրորդում քաղդէական մատենին .  յորում պարսաւէ զյունաց մատենագիրս , թէ զուր կարձեցին ՚ի շամիրամգիրս ասորեստանւոյ շինեալ զբաբեղոսն . եւ զչքնաղ զարմանալիսն սուտ ՚ի նմանէ գործեալ մատենագրեցին :  Եւ զայս զքաղդէացւոց մատենագրութիւն արժանի հաւատարմութեան պարտ է համարել :  Եւ ոչ այսչափ միայն , այղ՛եւ ՚ի փիւնիկեացւոց յարքունիսն միաբան բանիցն բերովսոսայ գրեալ է մի ըստ միոջէ վասն թագաւորին բաբելացւոց . զի զասորիս եւ զամենայն զփիւնիկաստան նա վանեաց :  Միաբանէ այսոցիկ եւ փիղոստրատոսի պատմութիւնն , ուր յիշատակէ զտիւրոսի պաշարմանէն :  եւ մեգասթենէս ՚ի չորրորդում մատենին հնդկաց . յորում ցուցանել կամի զյառաջագոյն ասացելոյ զթագաւորէն բաբելացւոց , թէ արու(71)թեամբ եւ իրաց քաջաթեամբ անցանէր զհերակղիւ ,  մինչեւ զնեծ մասն ասէ լիբէացւոցն եւ զիւբէացւոց (իբերացւոց) կործանեալ : 
This is what Berossus says about Nebuchadnezzar,  and he relates many other things about him in the third book of his Chaldaean History,  in which he censures the Greek writers because they suppose, without any foundation, that Babylon was built by Semiramis, queen of Assyria, and they wrongly claim that those wonderful buildings were created by her.  (49) On this subject, the account in the Chaldaean History must surely be accepted.  Moreover, we find confirmation of what Berossus says in the archives of the Phoenicians, concerning this king Nebuchadnezzar, that he conquered all of Syria and Phoenicia.  Philostratus is in agreement on these matters in his History, where he mentions the siege of Tyre;  as is Megasthenes, in the fourth book of his Indian History, in which he tries to prove that this king of the Babylonians was superior to Heracles in strength and the greatness of his exploits;  for he says that he conquered most of Libya and Iberia. 
τὰ δὲ περὶ τοῦ ναοῦ προειρημένα τοῦ ἐν Ἰεροσολύμοις, ὅτι κατεπρήσθη μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν Βαβυλωνίων ἐπιστρατευσάντων,  ἤρξατο δὲ πάλιν ἀνοικοδομεῖσθαι, Κύρου τῆς Ἀσίας βασιλείαν παρειληφότος,  ἐκ τῶν Βηρωσσοῦ σαφῶς ἐπιδειχθήσεται παρατεθέντων. λέγει γᾶρ οὕτω διὰ τῆς τρίτης.  Ναβουχοδονόσορος μὲν οὖν μετὰ τὸ ἄρξασθαι τοῦ προειρημένου τείχους, ἐμπεσὼν εἰς ἀῤῥωστίαν, μετηλλάξατο τὸν βίον, βεβασιλευκὼς ἔτη τεσσαρακοντατρία.  τῆς δὲ βασιλείας κύριος ἐγένετο ὁ υἱὸς αὐτοῦ Εὐειλμαράδουχος.  οὕτος προστὰς τῶν πραγμάτων ἀνόμως καὶ ἀσελγῶς, ἐπιβουλευθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ τὴν ἀδελφὴν ἔχοντος αὐτοῦ Νηριγλισσοόρου ἀνῃρέθη, βασιλεύσας ἔτη δύο.  μετὰ δὲ τὸ ἀναιρεθῆναι τοῦτον, διαδεξάμενος τὴν ἀρχὴν ὁ ἐπιβουλεύσας αύτῷ Νηριγλισσοόρος, ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτη τέσσαρα.  τούτου υἱὸς Λαβοροσοάρχοδος ἐκυρίευσε μὲν τῆς βασιλεἰας παῖς ὢν μῆνας ἐννέα.  ἐπιβουλευθεὶς δὲ, διὰ τὸ πολλὰ ἐμφαίνειν κακοήθημ ὐπὸ τῶν φίλων ἀπετθμπανίσθη. 
Եւ զտաճարէն յառաջագոյն ասացելոյ երուսաղէմի , եւ հրձիգ եղեւ ՚ի բաբեղացւոցն զօրաց ՚ի վերայ գումարելոց .  եւ սկզբն լինէր շինելոյ միւսանգամ , յորժամ կիւրոս ա՛ռ զասիացւոց թագաւորութիւնն .  եւ այս ՚ի բերոսոսեայ մատենագրութեանցն հաւաստեաւ ցուցցի . քանզի ասէ յերրորդումն այսպէս .  Նաբուկոդրոսորոս յետ սկիզբն առնելոյ յառաջագոյն ասացելոյ պարըսպին շնելոյ՝ անկեալ յախտ հիւանդութեան՝ ՚ի կենաց վճարէր , թըգավորութեանն ամս խգ :  Եւ թագաւորութեանն տիրէր նորին որդի եւիղումարուդքոս .  եւ նորա դտեալ զեղծ եւ անօրէն յիրս թագաւորու(72)թեանն , նենգ գործեալ նմա յիւրմէ փեսայէն ՚ի Կեռն առնէ ՚ի ներիգղասորայ՝ մեռանէր , թագաւորեալ ամս . բ :  Եւ յետ նորա սպանանելոյ առեալ զիշխանութիւնն ՚ի ներիգղլասարայ՝ որ զմենդն գործեաց նմա, թըգաւորեալ ամս . դ .  եւ նորին որդի ղաբէսորաքոս տիրեաց թագաւորութեանն՝ մանուկ աւուրբք , ամիսս . թ :  եւ նենգեալ վասն բազում չարաբարոյս ցուցանելոյ՝ անդստին յիւրոց բարեկամաց կոչկոճեալ մեռանէր : 
I have said before that the temple at Jerusalem was attacked by the Babylonians, and burnt down by them,  but it was restored after Cyrus had taken control of Asia.  This is proved by what Berossus adds on the subject; for in his third book he says as follows:  “Nebuchadnezzar, after he had begun to build the wall which I mentioned, fell sick and died, when he had reigned forty-three years.  His son Evilmerodach became king,  but he governed public affairs in an illegal and dishonest manner, and after he had reigned for only two years,  Neriglissar, his sister's husband, plotted against him and killed him. After his death, Neriglissar, the man who had plotted against him, succeeded him in the kingdom, and reigned for four years;  his son Laborosoarchod obtained the kingdom, though he was but a child, and kept it for nine months;  but because of the depraved disposition which he showed, a plot was laid against him also, and he was beaten to death by his friends. 
ἀπολωμένου δὲ τούτου, συνελθόντες οἱ ἐπιβουλεύσαντες αὐτῷ, κοινῇ τὴν βασιλείαν περιέθηκαν Ναβοννήδῳ τινι τῶν ἐκ βαβυλῶνος, ὄντι ἐκ τῆς αὐτῆς ἐπισυστάσεως.  Ἐπὶ τούτου τὰ περὶ τὸν ποταμὸν τείχη τῆς Βαβυλωνίων πόλεως, ἐξ ὀπτῆς πλίνθου καὶ ἀσφάλτου κατεκοσμήθη.  οὔσης δὲ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ ἑπτακαιδεκάτῳ ἔτει, προεξεληλυθὼς Κῦρος ἐκ τῆς Περσίδος μετὰ δυνάμεως πολλῆς, καὶ καταστρεψάμενος τὴν λοιπὴν Ἀσίαν πᾶσαν, ὥρμησεν ἐπὶ τῆς Βαβυλωνίας.  αἰσθόμενος δὲ Ναβόννηδος τὴν ἔφοδον αὐτοῦ, ἀπαντήσας μετὰ τῆς δυνάμεως καὶ παραταξάμενος,  ἡττηθεὶς τῇ μάχῃ καὶ φυγὼν ὀλιγοστος, συνεκλείσθη εἰς τὴν Βορσιππηνῶν πόλιν.  Κῦρος δὲ Βαβυλῶνα καταλαβόμενος, καὶ συντάξας τὰ ἔξω τῆς πόλεως τείχη κατασκάψαι, διὰ τὸ λίαν αὐτῷ πραγματικὴν καὶ δυσάλωτον φανῆναι τὴν πόλιν,  ἀνέζευξεν ἐπὶ Βόρσιππον, ἐκπολιορκήσων τὸν Ναβόννηδον.  τοῦ δὲ Ναβοννήδου οὐχ ὐπομεἰναντος τὴν πολιορκίαν, ἀλλ᾽ ἐγχειρήσαντος αὐτὸν,  πρότερον, χρησάμενος Κῦρος φιλανθρώπος, καὶ δοὺς οἰκητήριον αὐτῷ Καρμανιαν, ἐξέπεμψεν ἐκ τῆς Βαβυλωνίας.  Ναβόννηδος μὲν οὖν, τὸ λοιπὸν τοῦ χρόνου διαγενόμενος ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ χώρᾳ, κατέστρεψε τὸν βίον. 
Եւ ՚ի նորա սատակել՝ ժողովէին նորին նենգագործքն . եւ հասարակ զթագավորոյթիւնն նաբոնեդայ ումեմն բաբելացւոյ տային , որ էր անդստին ՚ի նոյն խազմագործ նենգութեանէն.  Առ նովաւ շուրջ զգտովն պարիսպքն բաբէղոնի ՚ի թրծուն աղիւսոյ , եւ ՚ի նաւթոյ կազմեցան :  Եւ ՚ի ժէ . երորդում ամի թագաւորութեան նորա խաղացեալ կիւրոս ՚ի (73) պարսկաստանէ զօրօք բազմօք՝ վանեաց զամենայն զայլ թագաւորութիւնս . դիմեաց ՚ի վերայ բաբէղոնի :  Ազդ ելեւ նաբոդնայ (նաբոնեդայ) զնորա արշաւելոյ ՚ի գիմի հարկանէր նորա զօրօք՝ տալ պատերազմ :  Մատնեալ ՚ի պարտութիւն ՚ի կռուին՝ ՚ի փախուստ դառնայր . եւ սակաւաւոր մտեալ ամբանայր ՚ի բորսիպենացւոց քաղաքին :  Կիւրոս առեալ զբաբէլոն՝հրաման տայր զարտաքին պարիսպ քաղաքին ՚ի հիմանց տապալել՝ վասն ամրութեանն , եւ դժուարին առ առնուլ երեւելոյ քաղաքին :  Եւ ինքն չուէր գնայր ՚ի բորսիպոն՝ պաշարել զնաբոդենոս .  եւ նաբոդենոս իբրեւ չունէր ժոյժ պաշարմանն՝ ձեռն տայր ՚ի նա ,  զառաջինն . մարդասիրութիւն արարեալ կիւրոսի՝ ետ նմա բնակութիւն զաշխարհն կրմանից . (74) հանեալ ՚ի բաբէղոնէ՝ արձակեաց ըզնա անդր :  Նաբովնեդայ անցուցեալ զայլ եւս ժամանակս յայնմ աշխարհի՝ վճարէր ՚ի կենաց : 
After his death, the conspirators met together, and by common consent entrusted the kingdom to Nabonidus [Nabonnedus], a Babylonian who had joined in the plot.  In his reign the walls of the city of Babylon were built magnificently with burnt brick and bitumen;  but when he had reached the seventeenth year of his reign, Cyrus advanced from Persia with a great army; and having already conquered all the rest of Asia, he marched against Babylonia.  (51) When Nabonidus heard that Cyrus was coming to attack him, he met him with his forces,  but was defeated in battle. He fled away with a few of his troops, and was shut up in the city of Borsippa.  Cyrus captured Babylon, and gave orders that the outer walls of the city should be demolished, because the city had proved very formidable, and was difficult to capture.  He then marched away to Borsippa, to besiege Nabonidus,  who immediately surrendered without waiting for a siege.  Nabonidus was at first kindly treated by Cyrus, who sent him away from Babylonia and gave him Carmania, as a place to inhabit.  Accordingly Nabonidus spent the rest of his time in that country, and there he died.” 
(γέγραπται γὰρ ἐν αὐταῖς) ὅτι Ναβουχοδονόσορος ὀκτωκαιδεκάτῳ τῆς αὐτοῦ βασιλεἰας ἔτει τὸν παρ᾽ ἡμῖν ναὸν ἠρήμωσε, καὶ ἦν ἀφανὴς ἐπὶ ἔτη πεντήκοντα.  δευτέρῳ δὲ τῆς Κύρου βασιαλείας ἔτει τῶν θεμελίων ὐποβληθέντων, δευτέρῳ πάλιν τῆς Δαρείου βασιλείας ἀπετελέσθη.  Προσθήσω δὲ καὶ τὰς τῶν Φοινίκων ἀναγραφάς· οὐ γὰρ παραλειπτέον τῶν ἀποδείξεων τὴν παριουσίαν.  ἔστι δὲ τοιαύτη τῶν χρόνων ἡ καταρίθμησις. 
թէ յութուտասներորդում ամի թագգաուութեանն նաբուքոդոնոսորայ աւերեաց զտաճարն մեր . եւ կայր յատակեալ մինչեւ ց’ ծ . ամ :  Եւ յերկրորդ ամի թագաւորութէանն կիւրոսի անկանէին հիմունք տաճարին . եւ ՚ի վեցերորդում ամի թագաւորութեանն դարեհի կատարէր :  Յաւելից ՚ի նոյն եւ զփիւնիկեցւոց մատենագիրսն . քանզի չեն անվաւերական ցուցանելոյ բազում հաստատութիւն :  Այսպիսի ինչ է ժամանակացն համար : 
This account is true, and agrees with our scriptures; for in them it is written that Nebuchadnezzar, in the eighteenth year of his reign, destroyed our temple, and so it lay in ruins for fifty years;  but in the second year of the reign of Cyrus its foundations were laid, and it was completed again in the second year of Dareius.  I will now add the records of the Phoenicians, because I ought to give the reader abundant proof on this occasion.  These records list the lengths of the reigns of their kings as follows: 
Ἐπὶ Εἰθωβάλου τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπολιόρκησε Ναβουχοδονόσορος τὴν Τύρον ἐπ᾽ ἔτη δεκατρία. 
Առ եթոբաղաւ քրմաւ՝ պաշարեաց նաբուքոդոնոսոր (75) զտիւրոս՝ ամս . ժգ : 
Ithobal - During his reign, Nebuchadnezzar besieged Tyre for thirteen years. 
μετὰ τοῦτον ἐβασίλευσε Βαὰλ ἔτη δέκα. 
Յետ նորա թագաւորեաց բաղղա՝ ամս . ժ : 
Baal, ten years 
μετὰ τοῦτον δικασταὶ κατεστάθησαν καὶ ἐδίκασαν· 
Յետ նորա դատաւորք կացին , եւ դատեցան : 
After him judges were appointed, and held office: 
Ἐκνίβαλος Βασλάχου μῆνας δύο, 
Եդնիբաղոս բասեքայ՝ամիսս . բ : 
Ecnibalus, the son of Baslechus, two months 
Χέλβης Ἀβδαἰου μῆνας δέκα, 
եւ քեղբէս աբդեանց՝ ամիսս . ժ : 
Chelbes, the son of Abdaeus, ten months 
Ἄββαρος ἀρχιερεὺς μῆνας τρεῖς, 
Աբաղոս քահանայապետ՝ ամիսս . գ : 
Abbar, the high priest, three months 
Μύτγονος καὶ Γεράστρατος τοῦ Ἀβδηλέμου δικασταὶ ἔτη ἓξ, 
Սիպունոսթոս . եւ գերաստարտաս : Աբդեղինա՝ մինչդեռ ՚ի դատաւորութեանն էր՝ թագաւորեաց ամս . զ : 
Myttynus and Gerastratus, the sons of Abdelimus, six years 
ὧν μεταξὺ ἐβασίλευσε Βαλάτορος ἐνιαυτὸν ἕνα. 
Բաղատորոս որդի նորին թագաւորեաց տարի մի : 
After them, Balatorus was king for one year 
τούτου τελευτήσαντος, ἀποστείλαντες μετεπέμψαντο Μἐρβαλον ἐκ τῆς Βαβυλῶνος, καὶ ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτη τέσσαρα.  Τούτου τελευτήσαντος, μετεπέμψαντο τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ Εἵρωμον, ὃς ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτη εἴκοσιν.  ἐπὶ τούτου Κῦρος Περσῶν ἐδυνἀτευσεν. 
՚Ի նորա վախճանել՝ առաքեցին կոչեցին զմեբաղոն ՚ի բաբէղոնէ . եւ թագաւորեաց ամս չորս :  Եւ ՚ի նորա վախճանել՝կոչեցին զնորին եղբայր զ՚իրողմոն . որ թագաւորեաց ամս . ի :  առ նովաւ կիւրոս պարսից ճոխացաւ : 
After his death they summoned Merbalus from Babylon, who reigned four years  - After his death they sent for his brother Hirom, (53) who reigned twenty years  - In his reign Cyrus became king of Persia. 
Οὐκοῦν ὁ σύμπας χρόνος ἔτη πεντήκοντα τέσσαρα καὶ τρεῖς μῆνες πρὸς αὐτοῖς.  ἑβδόμῳ μὲν γὰρ περὶ τῆς Ναβουχοδονοσόρου βασιλείας ἤρξατο πολιορκεῖν Τῦρον. τεσσαρεσκαιδκάτῳ δ᾽ ἔτει τῆς Εἰρώμου Κῦρος ὁ Πέρσης τὸ κράτος παρέλαβεν.  καὶ σύμφωνα μὲν ἐπὶ τοῦ ναοῦ τοῖς ἡμετέροις γράμμασι τὰ Χαλδαίων καὶ Τυρίων … 
Եւ թէ այսպէս իցէ , ապա ամենայն ժամանակն լինին ամք . ծդ . եւ ամիսք երեք , ըստ նոցա համարայն :  քանզի յեօթներորդ ամի թագաւորութանն նաբուքոդոնոսորայ սկիզբն արար պաշարելոյ զտիւրոս . եւ ՚ի չոր(76)րորդում ամի իրովմայ՝ ա՛ր կիւրոս պարսիկ զիշխանութիւնն :  եյ այսպէս միաբան մերոց գրոց զտաճարէն՝ եւ քաղդէացւոց եւ տիւրացւոց մատեանքն խօսին : 
So the whole period is fifty-four years and three months;  for Nebuchadnezzar began to besiege Tyre in the seventh year of his reign , and Cyrus the Persian came to power in the fourteenth year of Hirom.  Therefore the records of the Chaldaeans and the Tyrians agree with our writings about this temple. 
     
Զայս վասն այսոցիկ այսպէս յովսէպոս :  Բայց դարձեալ յետ այսորիկ եւ աբիդենոս զպատճիկ քալդէացւոց թագաւորութեանն հանդոյն բազմավիպին առընթեր եդեալ նուաճէ :  Ուրոյն եւ զատ զասորեաստանեաց թագաւորսնկարդ ըստ կարդէ համարի՝ այս ձեւ օրինակի : 
That is what Josephus says about these matters.  Later on, Abydenus includes another account of the kings of the Chaldaeans, which is similar to Polyhistor.  Then he lists the kings of the Assyrians in [chronological] order, as follows. 
 
ԱՍԻՐԵՍՏԱՆԵԱՅՑ

Աբիդենեայ վասն ասորեստնեաց թագավորութեանն : 
[ THE ASSYRIANS ]

[From the writings] of Abydenus, about the kingdom of the Assyrians 
     
Այսպէս քաղդէացիք զաշխարին թագաւորս ՚յաղովրայ մինչեւ ՚ցա(77)ղեքսանդրոս վարկանին . զնինեայ եւ զշամիրամայ չունին ինչ փոյթ յանձին :  Զայս իբրեւ ասէ , անդստին (78) սկիզբն առնէ պատմութէանն :  Էր ասէ , նինոս՝ արբէղայ , քաաղայ , արբէղայ , անեբայ , բաբեայ , բէղայ՝ արքայի ասորեստանեաց : (79) 
“That is the account which the Chaldaeans give of the kings of their country, but they do not mention Ninus or Semiramis.”  After saying this, he immediately begins the history [of the Assyrians]:  “Ninus was the son of Arbelus, the son of Anebus, the son of Babus, the son of Belus, king of the Assyrians.” 
     
Եւ ապա մի ըստ միոջէ համարի՝ ՚ի նինեաց եւ ՚ի շամիրամայ մինչեւ ցսարդանապաղղոս , որ քան զամենսեան հուսկ յետայ էր . յորմէ մինչեւ զառա(80)ջին ողոմպիադն լինին ամք . կէ :  Աբիդէնոս վասն ասորեստանեաց թագաւորութեանն մի ըստ միո(81)ջէ զայս ձեւ օրինակի :  Ոչ միայն նա , այլեւ կաստովր յառաջնում ժամանակաւորացն համառօտ մատեանի զայս գոյն օրինակի՝ մինչեւ ՚ի սողոբայս ապաստան՝ զասորեաստանեաց թագաուրութեանէն վիպագրէ : 
Then he lists [the kings of the Assyrians] from Ninus and Semiramis up until Sardanapallus, who was the last of all the kings; and from Sardanapallus until the first Olympiad, there are 67 years.  That is the account which Abydenus gives about each of the Assyrian kings.  But he is not the only writer [to mention them]: Castor, in the first book of the Summary of his Chronicle, speaks about the kingdom of the Assyrians in the following words. 
 
՚Ի կաստովրեայ համաւօտ մատեանեն , վասն ասորեստանեաց թագաւորութեանն : 
From the Summary of Castor, about the kingdom of the Assyrians 
               
Բէղոս էր ասէ ասորեաստանեաց թագաւոր .  եւ առ նովաւ կիկղո(82)պայքն՝ փայլատակուն եւ շանթս հրացանս արամաղդայ մարտուցելոյ ընդ տիտանացինս նպաստ ՚ի կռիւ լինէին :  Եւ թագաւորք տիտանացւոց ճանաչէին ՚ի ժամանակին . յորոց մի էր ովգիգոս արքայ :  Եւ յետ սակայ բանից զմովիմբ ածեալ՝ ասէ , թէ սկայք դիմեցին ՚ի վերայ , դից եւ սատակեցան , զօրավիգն օգնականութեան դիցն լեալ հերակլի եւ դիոնիսի՝ որ էին ՚ի տիտանացի :  Բէղոս՝ զորմէ յառաջագոյնն ասացաք , վճարեաց կեանս . որ եւ աստուած եւս կարծեացաւ :  Յետ որոյ նինոս ասորեստանեաց թագաւորեաց ամս . ծբ : նա արար կին զշամիրամ :  Յետ ոտոյ շամիրամ թագաւորեաց ասորեստանեաց ամս . խբ :  Եւ ապա զամէս , որ եւ նինուաս : 
“Belus was the king of the Assyrians.  During his reign, the Cyclopes brought lightning and thunder to assist Zeus during his battle against the Titans.  - At the same time, the kings of the Titans were in their prime - including king Ogygus.”  And shortly afterwards he says: “The giants attacked the gods, (55) and were killed, after Heracles and Dionysus, who were descended from the Titans, came to the aid of the gods.  Belus, whom we mentioned before, came to the end of his life, and was regarded as a god.  After him, Ninus ruled the Assyrians for 52 years. His wife was Semiramis.  After Ninus, Semiramis ruled the Assyrians for 42 years.  Then Zames, who was also called Ninyas, [was king].” 
   
Եւ հապ մի ըստ միոջէ զտագաւորս ասորեստանեաց՝ որ յետ նոծա էին , ՚ի կարդ արկեալ համարի մինչեւ ցսարանապաղղոս ,  յանուանէ յիշատակեալ զամենեսին , զորոց եւ մեք յետ սակաւ միոյ եւ զաուանս եւ զժամանակս թագաւորութեանցն դիցուք : 
Then he lists each of the subsequent kings of the Assyrians in order, up until Sardanapallus.  He mentions all of them by name; and we also will write down their names, together with the length of each of their reigns, a little later on. 
ὥς που καὶ Κάστωρ ἐν τῷ κανόνι αὐτοῦ φησὶν, ὧδε.  Πρώτους μὲν εἶναι τοὺς Ἀσσυρίους βασιλεῖς κατετάχαμεν, τὴν μὲν ἀρχήν ἀπὸ Βήλου πεποιημένους. τὸ δὲ, τῷ τῆς βασιλεῖας αὐτοῦ ἔτει, μὴ παραδεδόσθαι σαφῶς.  τοῦ μὲν ὀνόματος μνημονεύομεν, τὴν δὲ ἀρχὴν τῆς χρονογραφίας ἀπὸ Νῖνον τὸν διαδεξάμενον τὴν βασιλείαν ἀπὸ Σαδαναπάλου …     
Քանզի եւ նա ՚ի կանոնսն զսոյն օրինակ բանից գրէ զնոցանէ :  նախ զասորեստանեաց թագաւորսն յօրինեցաք , սկիզբն ՚ի բէղայ արարեալ . եւ քանզի ամք թագաւո(83)րութեանն նորա ստոյգ չաւանդեցին ,  զանունն յիշատակեցաք . բայց սկիզբն ժամանակագրութեանն ՚ի նինայ արարաք . եւ ՚ի միւս նինոս՝որ առ զթագավորութիւնն ՚ի սարդանապաղղայ , հանդուցաք :  զի այսպէս յայտնի եւ բավանգակ իսկ ժամանակն լինիցի՝ եւ իւրաքանչիւր ուրուք առանձինն ՚ի թագաւորելոցն .  եւ այսպէս գտանի ժամանակն ամաց . ռ . երկերիւր եւ ութսնից : 
Castor writes about the Assyrians again in his Canons, in these words:  “First we have listed the kings of the Assyrians, starting with Belus; but because the length of his reign is not stated for certain, we have only mentioned his name.  We have started the list in this chronicle with Ninus, and ended with another Ninus, who succeeded Sardanapallus as king.  In this way, the total duration of the kingdom can be clearly shown, as well as the length of each of the individual reigns.  And it shows that the kingdom lasted for 1,280 years.” 
   
Զա՛յս կաստովր :  Բայզ պատմէ զսոյնս՝ որ եւ զմատենադարանսն ժողովէր՝ դիոդորոս սիկեղացի , զնոյն ձեւ եւ նա զնոյն բանս գրէ : 
That is what Castor says.  And Diodorus Siculus, who wrote the [Historical] Library, gives a similar account, in the following words. 
 
՚Ի դիոդորի մատեանիցն՝ վասն ասորեստանեաց թագաւոտութեանն : 
From the writings of Diodorus, about the kingdom of the Assyrians 
Τὸ πάλαι τοίνυν κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίαν ὐπῆρχον ἐγχώριοι βασιλεῖς, ὧν οὔτε πράξεις ἐπίσημοι, οὔτε ὀνόματα μνημονεύεται.  πρῶτος δὲ τῶν ἱστορίᾳ καὶ μνήμῃ παραδεδομένων Νῖνος ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἀσσυρίων μεγάλας πράξεις ἐπετελέσατο. περὶ οὗ τὰ μέρος ἀναγράφειν πειρασόμεθα.  (Καὶ μεθ’ ἕτερα). (μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα) γεννήσας ἐκ Σεμιράμιδος υἱὸν Νινύαν ἐτελεύτησε, τὴν γυναῖκα ἀπολιπὼν βασίλισσαν. τὸν δὲ Νῖνον ἡ Σεμίραμις ἔθαψεν ἐν βασιλείοις.  (καὶ ἐπάγει.) αὕτη μὲν οὖν βασιλεύσασα τῆς Ἀσίας ἁπάσης, πλὴν Ἰνδῶν,  ἐτελεύτησε τὸν προειημένον τρόπον, βιώσασα μὲν ἔτη ξβʹ. βασιλεύσασα δὲ δύο πρὸς μʹ.  … Μετὰ δὲ τὸν ταύτης θάνατον Νινύας ὁ Νίνου καὶ Σεμιράμιδος υἱὸς παραλαβὼν τὴν ἀρχὴν ἦρχεν εἰρηνικῶς,  τὸ φιλοπόλεμον καὶ κεκινδυνευμένον τῆς μητρὸς οὐδαμῶς ζηλώσας. 
Զառաջինն յասիացւոց աշխարհին՝անդստին յաշխարհէն կացին (84)թագաւորք . որոց ո՛չ քաջութիւն եւ ո՛չ անուն յիշի :  Արաջին՝ վիպասանութէան եւ յիշատակաց արժանի նինոս գտանէր՝ թագաւոր ասորեստանեաց . որ մեծամեծ արութիւնս եւ քաջութիւնս վճարեաց . զորմէ մանր կարգ ըստ կարգէ գրել փութացաք :  Եւ ապա յետ այլոց պանից ասէ , եթէ ծնաւ որդի ՚ի շամիրամայ զնինուաս : Եւ եբրեւ վախճանեացաւ , ըզկինն եթող տիկին . զնիսոս շամիբամ թաղեաց յարքունիսն :  Եւ դաձեալ յետ սակաւ բանից զնովիմբ ածեալ՝ ասէ զշամիրամայ , թէ սա թագաւորեաց ամենայն ասիացւոց՝ բաց ՚ի հնդկաց .  եւ վախճանեցաւ ըստ այնմ օրինակի՝որպէս յարաձագոյն ասացաք , կեցեալ ամս . կբ . եւ (85) թագաւորեալ ամս . բ . ընդ քառասնով :  Եւ մի ըստ միոջէ համարի , թէ յետ նոար մահուանն՝ նինուաս նինեայ եւ շամիրամայ որդի առ զիշխանութիւնն . եւ ունէր խաղաղութեամբ .  եւ պատերազմասէր եւ աշխատասէր մօրն մտաց չեղեւ ինչ երբէք նախանձաւոր : 
“No noteworthy deeds or even names have been recorded of the native kings who ruled in Asia in the most ancient times.  Ninus of Assyria is the first king who is recorded in history. His achievements were great, and we will give a detailed account of him.”  And then a little later he says: “[Ninus] had a son by Semiramis, who was called Ninyas. - But when Ninus died, Semiramis became queen, and she buried Ninus in the palace.”  And again, a little later he says: “[Semiramis] ruled over all of Asia, except for the Indians; (57)  and she died in the manner which we have described, when she had lived for 62 years and had reigned for 42 years.”  And he states separately that: “After she died, Ninyas the son of Ninus and Semiramis became king, and he remained at peace.  He did not attempt to imitate the exploits of his mother, who had been eager for war and struggle.” 
(Καὶ μεθ᾽ ἕτερα.) παραπλησίως δὲ τούτῳ καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ βεσιλεῖς, παῖς παρὰ πατρὸς διαδεχόμενος τὴν ἀρχὴν, ἐβασίλευσαν ἐπὶ γενεὰς (μεʹ.)  ἐπὶ τούτου γὰρ ἡ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων ἡγεμονία μετέπεσεν εἰς Μήδους ἔτη διαμείνασα πλείω τῶν ᾳʹ. καὶ τʹ. καθάπερ φησὶ Κτησίας ὁ Κνίδιος ἐν τῇ βʹ. βίβλιῳ.  τὰ δὲ ὀνόματα τῶν βασιλέων, καὶ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ἐτῶν οὐκ ἐπεγράφει, διὰ τὸ μηδὲν ὑπ’ αὐτῶν πεπράχθαι μνήμης ἄχιον.  μὀνη γὰρ τέτυχε ἀναγραφῆς ἡ πεμφθεῖσα συμμαχία τοῖς Τρωσὶν ὑπὸ Ἀσσυρίων, ᾗ ἐστρατήγει ὁ Μένων ὁ Τιθωνοῦ.  Ταυτάνου γὰρ βασλιεύοντος τῆς Ἀσίας, ὃς ἦν κϛʹ. ἀπὸ Νίνου τοῦ Σεμιράμιδός, φησι τὺς μετ᾽ Ἀγαμέμνονς Ἔλληνας ἐπὶ Τροΐαν στρατεῦσαι τὴν ἡγεμονίαν ἐχόντων τῆς Ἀσίας Ἀσσυρίων ἔτη πλείω τῶν χιλίων.  καὶ τὸν μὲν Πρίαμον βαρυνόμενον τῷ πολέμῳ καὶ βασιλεύοντα τῆς Τρωάδος, ὑπήκοον δ᾽ὄντα τῷ βασιλεῖ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων. πἐμψαι πρὸς αὐτὸν πρεσβαυτὰς περὶ βοηθείας.  τὸν δὲ (Ταύταμον) μυρίους μὲν Αἰθίοπας, ἄλλος δὲ τοσούτους Σουσιανοὺς σὺν ἅρμασι διακοσίοις ἐξαποστεῖλαι, σατραγὸν καταστήσαντα Μέμνονα τὸν Τιθωνοῦ.  ... περὶ μὲν οὖν Μέμνονος τοιαῦτ᾽ ἐν ταῖς βασιλικαῖς ἀναγραφαῖς ἱστορεῖσθαι φασίν οἱ βάρβαροι. 
Եւ դարձեալ յետ այլոց բանից զնովիմբ ածէ . Հանգոյն ոմին ասէ և այլ թագաւորքն ոֆդի ՚ի հօրէ առնուին զիշխանութիւնն . և թագաւորեցւն ազագաց յազգս մինչև զսար(86)դանապաղղոս .  քանզի առ նովաւ թագաւորութիւնն ասորեաստանեաց փոխեցաւ ՚ի մարս , տևեալ բաւեալ ամս աւելի քան զհազար և զերեքարիւր . որպէս ասէ կտէսիէս կնիգացի յերկրորդ մատենին :  Բայց զանուանս թագաւորացն՝ զոր թագաւորեցին , և զբազնուտիւնն ամացն՝ չունին ինչ պոյթ գրելոյ , յալագս ոչ գործելոյ ինչ ՚ի նոցանէ արժանի յիշատակի .  միայն թիկունքն օգանականութեան , որ տրովացւոցն առաքեցան յասորեստանեաց՝ արժան եղեն մատենագրութէան . որոց մեմնոն տիթոնեայ էր օրավար :  ՚Ի թագաւորել տաւտանեայ ասիացւոց աշխարհին , որ էր քնաներորդ վեցերորդ ՚ի նինեայ շամիրամանց , ասեն՝ թէ ընդ ագամենոնեայ յոյնք զօաժողով եղեն յաշխարհն տրովացւոց՝ տալ ճակատս , մինչդեռ զպետութիւնն ասիացւոց ասորեստանեայք ունէին աւելի քան զհազարամեայ ժամանակ :  Պրիամոս թագաւոր տրովացւոց ծանրացեալ նեղեալ ՚ի պատրազմաց՝ ձեռս տայր (88) յարքայն ասորեստանեաց , աղօթկեարս արձակէր՝ առակել նմա թիկունս օգանականութեան :  Եւ նա տայր նմա բիւր զօր յեթւովպացւոց աշխարհէն , և այլ եւս նոյնչափ նուսիանս , հանդերձ երկերիւր կառօք . և զօրավար յղէր զմեմնոն տիթոնեայ :  Եւ ըստ նոցանէ դարձեալ զնոքիմբք ածեալ՝ ասէ , թէ զամեմնոնեայ զայսպիսի ինչ արութիւնս յարքունի մատեանսն պատմեալ ասեն բարբարոսք : 
And again, a little later he says: “And in a similar way the other kings ruled for 35 generations, handing down the kingdom from father to son, until the time of Sardanapallus.  When he was king, the empire of the Assyrians was destroyed by the Medes, after lasting for over 1,300 years, as Ctesias of Cnidus says in his second book.  There is no need to write down the names of these kings, or the lengths of their reigns, because they achieved nothing worthy of mention.  The only event which is recorded is that the Trojans received assistance from the Assyrians, led by Memnon the son of Tithonus.  They say that when the Greeks sailed with Agamemnon against Troy, Asia was ruled by Teutamus, who was the twenty-sixth king from Ninyas the son of Semiramis; and the empire of the Assyrians in Asia had already lasted for over a thousand years.  Priamus the king of the Trojans, worn out by the pressure of war, submitted to the king of the Assyrians, and sent an embassy to ask the Assyrians to send aid and reinforcements.  The king of the Assyrians gave him ten thousand men from the land of the Ethiopians, and a similar number of Susians, with two hundred chariots; and he sent Memnon the son of Tithonus to be their leader.”  And again he says: “The barbarians say that the splendid achievements of Memnon are reported in the royal books.” 
Σαρδανάπαλος δὲ τριακοστὸς καὶ πέμπτος ἀπὸ Νίνου τοῦ συστησαμένου τὴν ἡγεμονίαν, ἔσχατος δὲ γενόμενος βασιλεὺς Ἀσσυρίων,  ὑπερῇρεν ἅπαντας τοὺς πρὸ αὐτοῦ τρυφῇ καὶ ῥαθυμίᾳ.  (καὶ μετ᾽ ὀλίγα). καὶ τοιοῦτος ὢν τὸν τρόπον, οὐ μόνον αὐτὸς αἰσχρῶς κατέστερψε πολυχρονιωτάτην γενομένην τῶν μνεμονευομένων.  Ἀρβάκης γάρ τις, Μῆδος μὲν τὸ γένος, ἀνδρείᾳ δὲ καὶ ψυχῆς λαμπρότητι διαφέρων, ἐστρατήγει Μήδων τῶν κατ᾽ἐνιαυτὸν ἐκπεμπομένων εἰς τὸν Νῖνον.  κατὰ δὲ τὴν στρατηγίαν γενόμενος συνήθης τῷ στρατηγῷ τῶν Βαβιλωνίων, ὑπ᾽ ἐκείνου παρεκλήθη καταλῦσαι τὴν τῶν Ἀσσυρίων ἡγεμονίαν.   
Սարդանապաղղոս , որ երեսներորդ հինգերորդ էր ՚ի նենեայ՝ որ գումա(89)րեաց կալաւ զպետութիւնն , հուսկ յետոյ եկաց արքայ ասորեստանեաց .  և անցոյց զանցոյց զամենեքումբք՝ որ յարաջ քան զնա էին , բարեկեցութեամբ և յուղութեամբ :  Եւ յետ սակաւ միոյ ասէ , թէ այնչափ անառակ էր , զի ոչ ինքն միայն գարշութեամբ եղծ զկեանսն , այլև համօրէն իսկ զասորեաստանեաց պետութիւնն զեղծեցոյց , որ բազմաժամանակեան հաստատեալ կայր ՚ի յիշատակելոցն :  Վարբակէս ոմն՝ մար յազգէ , առաքինի արութեամբ , և լաւ որտին քաջութեամբ՝ զօրավար էր մարաց , մի յայնցանե՝ որք ամի ամի երթային ՚ի նինոս քաղաք :  ՚Ի զօրավարութեան՝ և ՚ի բանի բարեկամացաւ ընդ սպարապետի բաբէղոցւոց . և ՚ի նմանէ աղաչեալ՝ քակէր զպեութիւնն ասորեստանեաց :  Զայս դիոդորոս յերկրորդում մատենիցն պատմական դարանի : 
“Sardanapallus was the 35th king from Ninus, who established their empire. He was the last king of the Assyrians,  and he outstripped all his predecessors in luxury and indolence.”  And a little later he says: “He was so shameless, that he not only ruined his own life by his perversions, but also destroyed the entire empire of the Assyrians, which had lasted for longer than any other recorded empire.  (59) Arbaces, one of the Medes who was renowned for his bravery and his outstanding spirit, was the leader of the Medes who were sent every year to the city of Ninus [Nineveh].  While leading his army, he became acquainted with the general of the Babylonians, who urged him to overthrow the empire of the Assyrians.”  This is what Diodorus says in the second book of his Historical Library [chapters 1-24]. 
 
Առ նոյնս յիշատակէ զասորեստանեաց իշխանութեանէն և կեփաղիոս , և ասէ այսպէս : 
Cephalion is another writer who mentions the empire of the Assyrians, and this is what he says. 
 
Կեփաղիոնի վիպագրի վասն ասորեստանեաց թագաւորութեանն : 
[From the writings] of the historian Cephalion, about the kingdom of the Assyrians 
Ἄρχομαι γράφειν, ἀφ᾽ ὧν ἄλλοι τε ἐμνημόνευσαν, καὶ τὰ πρῶτα Ἐλλάνικός τε ὁ Λέσβιος, καὶ Κτησίας ὁ Κνίδιος, ἔπειτα ὁ Ἡρόδοτος, Ἀλικαρνασσεύς. 
Սկսանիմ գրել յորոց և այլք յիշատակեցին . և նախ՝ եղանիկոս (91) ղեսբիացի, և կտէսիէս կնիդացի , ապա հերոդոտոս աղեկառնացի : 
“I begin my account with what the other writers have mentioned: firstly Hellanicus of Lesbos and Ctesias of Cnidus, and then Herodotus of Halicarnassus.  In ancient times, the Assyrians ruled over Asia, and Ninus the son of Belus was their king.  In his reign, many great events occurred.” Then he writes about the birth of Semiramis, Zoroaster the magus, the war with the king of the Bactrians and the disaster [suffered] by Semiramis; and about the death of Ninus, after a reign of 52 years.  After Ninus, Semiramis became queen.  She built the walls around Babylon, in the manner which has been described by many writers, such as Ctesias, Zenon [(?) or Dinon ], Herodotus, and later authors.  Then he tells of her expedition into the land of the Indians, how she was defeated and fled; and how she killed her own sons, but was herself put to death by Ninyas, another of her sons, when she had reigned for 42 years.  After her, Ninyas became king, but Cephalion says that he achieved nothing worthy of mention.  (61) Then he passes over all the other [kings]; “they ruled in total for a thousand years, handing down the kingdom from father to son; and none of them reigned for less than twenty years.  Their unwarlike, unadventurous and effeminate character kept them safe.  Because they were inactive and remained indoors, no-one had access to them except for their concubines and effeminate men.  If anyone wishes to know, I think that Ctesias lists the names of 23 of these kings.  But what pleasure or benefit would I provide, if I wrote down the names of barbarian kings, who achieved nothing, but were cowardly, weak and degenerate?” 
And again he adds: “After about 640 years had passed, Belimus was king of the Assyrians; and in his reign, Perseus the son of Danaë, who was escaping from Dionysus the son of Semele, arrived in the country with 100 ships.” Then, after describing the defeat of Perseus by Dionysus, he adds: “In a later generation, when Pannyas was king of the Assyrians, the expedition of the Argonauts sailed to the river Phasis, and to (?) Medeia of Colchis.  - They say that Heracles left the ship because of his love for Hylas, and wandered amongst the Cappadocians.” And again he says; “A thousand years after Semiramis, when Mitraeus was king [of the Assyrians], Medeia of Colchis left king Aegeus; her son was Medus, (63) who gave his name to the Medes and the country of Media.” 
Then he says: “Teutamus became king after Mitraeus, and he too lived according to the customs and laws of the Assyrians.  Nothing else happened in his reign, but [at this time] Agamemnon and Menelaus the Mycenaeans sailed with the Argives and other Achaeans against the city of Troy, when Priamus governed Phrygia.  [Priamus wrote to Teutamus:] 'The Greeks have invaded your territory and attacked me; we have met them in battle, and sometimes we have been victorious, but sometimes we have been defeated.  Now even my son Hector has been killed, along with many others of my brave children.  Therefore send a force to come to our relief, and appoint a valiant general to lead them.' “ Then [Cephalion] describes in detail, how Teutamus sent assistance to him, and appointed Memnon the son of Tithonus to be the leader of the army; but the Thessalians killed Memnon in an ambush. 
Then in another place, he says: “In the 1,013th year, Sardanapallus became king of the Assyrians.” Later, he describes the downfall of Sardanapallus.  "After the death of Sardanapallus, Arbaces the Mede destroyed the kingdom of the Assyrians and transferred their empire to the Medes.” All this is what Cephalion says. 
The kings of the Assyrians, as recorded by the most reliable of the writers, are as follows. 
The kings of the Assyrians 
Ninus, for 52 years. 
They say that Ninus was the first to rule over all the inhabitants of Asia, except for the Indians.  It can be shown that Abraham, the patriarch of the Hebrew nation, lived during his reign. 
Semiramis, for 42 years. 
Zames, also called Ninyas, for 38 years. 
Arius, for 30 years. 
Aralius, also called Amyrus, for 40 years. 
Xerxes, also called Balaeus, for 30 years. 
Armamithres, for 38 years. 
Belochus, for 35 years. 
Balaeas, for 12 years. 
Aladas, for 32 years. 
(65) Mamythus, for 30 years. 
Machchalaeus, for 30 years. 
Spherus, for 22 years. 
Mamylus, for 30 years. 
Sparethus, for 40 years. 
Ascatades, for 40 years. 
Moses, the law-giver of the Jews, lived during his reign. 
Amyntas, for 45 years. 
Belochus, for 45 years. 
His daughter Tratres, who was also called (?) Achurard, ruled for 17 years.  Dionysus and Perseus lived at this time. 
Balatores, for 30 years. 
Lamprides, for 32 years. 
Sosmares, for 8 years. 
Lampares, for 30 years. 
Pannias, for 42 years. 
The expedition of the Argonauts and Heracles happened during his reign. 
Sosarmus, for 19 years. 
Mithraeus, for 27 years. 
Teutamus, for 32 years. 
Troy was captured during his reign. 
Teutaeus, for 40 years. 
Theneus, for 30 years. 
Derusus, for 40 years. 
Eupalmes, for 38 years. 
[ David ], the famous king of the Hebrews, lived during his reign.  Solomon, the son [of David], built the temple at Jerusalem. 
Laosthenes, for 45 years. 
Peritiades, for 30 years. 
Ophrataeus, for 21 years. 
Ophatanes, for 50 years. 
(67) Acrazanes, for 42 years 
Sardanapallus, for 20 years. 
In his reign, Lycurgus established laws for the Lacedaemonians.  The empire of the kings of the Assyrians lasted until this time, when Thespieus the son of Ariphron was archon of the Athenians.  According to some writers, the whole empire of the Assyrians lasted for 1,240 years; according to others, it lasted for 1,300 years.  Thonnos Konkoleros, who is called Sardanapallus in Greek, was defeated by Arbaces and Belesius, and burnt himself to death.  From Sardanapallus until the first Olympiad, there are 40 years. 
After destroying the empire of Sardanapallus and the Assyrians, Arbaces appointed Belesius to be governor of Babylon.  He transferred the empire of the Assyrians to the Medes, and the duration of their empire was as follows. 
THE MEDES 
The kings of the Medes 
Arbaces, for 28 years. 
Maudaces, for 20 years. 
Sosarmus, for 30 years. 
Artycas, for 30 years. 
Deioces, for 54 years. 
Phraortes, for 24 years. 
Cyaxares, for 32 years. 
Ashdahak [Astyages], for 38 years. 
In his time, Cyrus was king of the Persians.  He deposed Ashdahak and destroyed the empire of the Medes, which had lasted for 298 years.  Others writers have given a different list of the kings of the Medes. 
THE LYDIANS 
The kings of the Lydians 
Ardys the son of Alyattes, for 36 years. 
Alyattes, for 14 years. 
(69) Meles, for 12 years. 
Candaules, for 17 years. 
Gyges, for 35 years. 
Ardys, for 37 years. 
Sadyattes, for 5 years. 
Odyartes, for 49 years. 
Croesus, for 15 years. 
Cyrus killed Croesus, and destroyed the empire of the Lydians. 
THE PERSIANS 
The kings of the Persians 
Cyrus, for 31 years. 
Cambyses, for 8 years. 
Smerdes the magus, for 7 months. 
Dareius the son of Hystaspes, for 36 years.  In his reign, the temple at Jerusalem was rebuilt, after the first [temple] had been burnt down by the Babylonians. 
Xerxes the son of Dareius, for 20 years. 
Artaxerxes, who was called Longimanus [Macrocheir], for 41 years.  In his reign, Ezra and Nehemiah were the leaders of the Hebrews. 
Dareius, for 7 years. 
Artaxerxes, for 40 years. 
Ochus, for 26 years. 
Arses, for 4 years. 
Dareius, for 6 years.  Alexander the son of Philippus killed Dareius, and ruled over the empire of the Persians and Assyrians for 12 years. 
After Alexander, there were Macedonian kings for 295 years, until the death of queen Cleopatra, who reigned in about the 187th Olympiad [32-29 B.C.].  In her time, Augustus was emperor of the Romans, who was called Sebastos in Greek.  (71) [Cleopatra died] in the 15th year of Augustus' reign.  From then until the 202nd Olympiad [29-32 A.D.], and the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar, there are 52 years.  And from then until the 20th anniversary of Constantinus, there are 300 years. 
We will now proceed to the chronology of the Hebrews. 
(71) THE HEBREWS 
How the Hebrews have recorded their chronology 
We will set down here the chronology of the Hebrews, taken from the writings of Moses and later Hebrew writers; from the Jewish Antiquities of Flavius Josephus; and from the chronicle of Africanus. 
How the Hebrews describe the [most ancient] times 
The dates and kings of the Chaldaeans and Assyrians, and of the Medes and Persians, have been described in the previous section.  And it is clearly shown that the ancestors of the Hebrew race were Chaldaeans, because Abraham was a Chaldaean and his forefathers are said to have lived in the land of the Chaldaeans, as Moses says in these words [Genesis, 11'31 ]: “Terah took his son Abraham, his grandson Lot son of Haran, and his daughter-in-law Sarah, the wife of his son Abraham, and he led them out of the land of the Chaldaeans.” 
Therefore it is fitting, after our account of the Chaldaeans, next to relate the history of the ancient Hebrews.  The description of the flood, which is recorded by the Hebrews, is very different from the stories of the Greeks, which they tell about the flood at the time of Deucalion.  [The Hebrew flood] happened a long time before Ogyges and the equally large flood, which is said by the Greeks to have happened in the time of Ogyges.  In all, the flood which is described by the Hebrews happened 1,200 years before the time of Ogyges, which in its turn happened 250 years before Deucalion's flood. 
But three is considerable agreement between the Hebrew scriptures and the accounts of the Assyrians, and the story which is told by them about the flood.  - They relate that before the flood, there were (73) ten successive generations. 
After the flood, the human race throughout the whole world was derived from three men.  Japheth was the ancestor of the inhabitants of Europe, from Mount Amanus to the western ocean.  Ham was [the ancestor of the inhabitants] of Egypt, Libya and all the regions to the west in that direction.  And Shem, who was the eldest brother, [was the ancestor] of the Assyrians, and all the peoples of the east. 
The Hebrew scriptures state that Nimrod was the first man to build the city of Babylon.  These are the words of the scriptures [Genesis, 10'8-11 ]: “Cush was the father of Nimrod” (Cush was an Ethiopian, who they believe was the father of Nimrod).  Then Scripture says about Nimrod: “He grew to be a mighty [warrior] on the earth.  He was a mighty hunter before the Lord, that is why it is said, 'Like Nimrod, a mighty [hunter] before the Lord.' The first centres of his kingdom were Babylon, Erech, Akkad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.  From that land he went to [Assyria], where he built Nineveh.” Nineveh is the city which is called Ninus [by the Greeks]; it was the first royal city of the Assyrians, which was founded by Asshur.  Asshur was one of the sons of Shem, who, as we said, took possession of all the regions of the east. 
They say that the sons of Shem were Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Aram and Lud.  Elam was the ancestor of the Elymaeans, the most ancient tribe of the Persians, who founded the city of Elymais.  Asshur was the ancestor of the Assyrians; he founded the city of Nineveh, which was later restored by Ninus the king of the Assyrians, who renamed it Ninus after his own name.  Arphaxad was the ancestor of the Arphaxaeans, who were also called Chaldaeans.  Aram was the ancestor of the Aramaeans, who were also called Syrians.  Lud was the ancestor of the Lydians.  Arphaxad was the father of Shelah, and Shelah was the father of Eber, from whom the name and nation of the Hebrews was derived.  The sixth in succession from Eber was Abraham, the patriarch of the Jewish nation, in the tenth generation after the flood.  That is sufficient to show in brief the close relationship between the Hebrews and the Chaldaeans and Assyrians.  (75) Therefore it is fitting after [the Assyrians] to start on the chronology of the Hebrews. 
At the very start of their account of history, [the Hebrews] tell the ancient story of the fall of the human race from their blissful state, and the first patriarch Adam, who was the forefather of the whole human race (Adam in the Hebrew language means all men in general).  The rest of the life [of Adam] after he was cast out of paradise is described by the Holy Spirit, through Moses.  And then [Genesis, 5'1-32 ] he lists the names of Adam's descendants and successors, and the length of each of their lives, so that from this point onwards we can calculate the chronology of the Hebrews, and write it down in order. 
No-one could calculate the length of their stay in the so-called paradise of God.  The admirable Moses, inspired by the Holy Spirit, seems to be suggesting another kind of era, greater than our own, a thrice-blessed and god-loving way of life, which he calls paradise - the dwelling place of the first race of men.  When Moses describes the blissful life of Adam in paradise, he is referring to the whole race [of men]. 
But this present chronicle will not include an account of that stay [in paradise], nor [will it start] from the creation of heaven, the earth and the universe, as some have done, but [it will start] from the establishment of our human race, and our era, beginning with the forefather of our race, called Adam, who was the one who fell from paradise and was case out from the blissful life.  - Taking the information from the scriptures of the Hebrews, as the book of Moses relates, I will set down the number of the years of the doomed and mortal life [of Adam], (77) and what follows; which is where the historical accounts of the Hebrews begin.  At this point, the book of Moses says [Genesis, 3'23 ]: “The Lord banished him” (that is, the first man) “from paradise to work the ground from which he had been taken.  And he drove Adam out, and made him dwell outside the region of paradise.” Then it adds [Genesis, 4'1 ]: “Adam lay with his wife Eve, and she conceived and gave birth to Cain.” Our present chronicle will start from this point; but it will not include the first part of history, which cannot be calculated and must be left separate from the subsequent times. 
There is much disagreement amongst the Hebrews about the dates which they have recorded.  Therefore it is best to look at the different accounts which they have given, and by comparing and considering them all, to decide where the truth lies.  The five books of Moses tell the story of the creation of the world, and of life before the flood, and the history of the most ancient men after the flood, and the successive generations after the flood, and Moses' departure from this life.  But the books of the law are written down differently by the Jews, and by the Samaritans, who were foreigners who came to live among the Jews. 
The characters, which are used by the Jews to represent the Hebrew letters, are different from those used by the Samaritans; and even the descendants of the Jews agree that the Samaritans use the original and true forms of the characters.  The two races had no disagreement [about the texts] until the characters were changed.  But now there is a great difference between them on matters of chronology, which will become immediately obvious when we compare them in the discussion which follows. 
The Greek translation also differs significantly from the Jewish version in some respects, but it does not differ much from the Hebrew version of the Samaritans.  There are some differences in the period up to the flood; but from then onwards until the time of Abraham, the two versions are in agreement. 
The text which we use was translated by seventy Hebrew men, out of their native language into Greek.  (79) They produced the translation in complete harmony during the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and placed it in the library at Alexandria. 
Now we will down write each version of Scripture in turn, so that it will be easy to spot the differences between them.  First of all, we will see how the Septuagint [the translation of the seventy men] records the chronology of the period from Adam until the birth of Abraham. 
The Septuagint 
Adam, the first man, became the father of Seth when he was 230 years old, and lived for another 700 years, until the 135th year of Mahalalel. 
Seth became the father of Enosh when he was 205 years old, and lived for another 707 years, until the 20th year of Enoch. 
Enosh became the father of Kenan when he was 190 years old, and lived for another 715 years, until the 53rd year of Methuselah. 
Kenan became the father of Mahalalel when he was 170 years old, and lived for another 740 years, until the 81st year of Lamech. 
Mahalalel became the father of Jared when he was 165 years old, and lived for another 730 years, until the 48th year of Noah. 
Jared became the father of Enoch when he was 162 years old, and lived for another 800 years, until the 280th year of Noah. 
Enoch became the father of Methuselah when he was 165 years old, and lived for another 200 years, until he was taken away in the 33rd year of Lamech. 
Methuselah became the father of Lamech when he was 167 years old, and lived for another 802 years.  The number of years assigned to Methuselah [by the Septuagint] suggests that he survived for (?) 22 years after the time of the flood; but we know that in some copies of the text, it is stated that he lived for another 782 years [after the birth of Lamech], and died at the time of the flood. 
(81) Lamech became the father of Noah when he was 188 years old, and lived for another 535 years.  Lamech died before his father Methuselah, in the 535th year of Noah. 
Noah became the father of Shem, Ham and Japheth when he was 500 years old, 100 years before the time of the flood.  The flood occurred in the 600th year of Noah, and he lived for another 350 years after the flood, until the 83rd year of Eber. 
In total, 2,242 years, according to the Septuagint version. 
The Hebrew version, of the Jews 
Adam became the father of Seth when he was 130 years old, and lived for another 800 years, until the 56th year of Lamech. 
Seth became the father of Enosh when he was 105 years old, and lived for another 807 years, until the 168th year of Lamech. 
Enosh became the father of Kenan when he was 90 years old, and lived for another 815 years, until the 84th year of Noah. 
Kenan became the father of Mahalalel when he was 70 years old, and lived for another 840 years, until the 179th year of Noah. 
Mahalalel became the father of Jared when he was 65 years old, and lived for another 830 years, until the 234th year of Noah. 
Jared became the father of Enoch when he was 162 years old, and lived for another 800 years, until the 366th year of Noah. 
Enoch became the father of Methuselah when he was 65 years old, and lived for another 300 years, until he was taken away in the 113th year of Lamech. 
Methuselah became the father of Lamech when he was 187 years old, and lived for another 782 years, up until the time of the flood. 
Lamech became the father of Noah when he was 182 years old, and lived for another 595 years.  He died five years before the flood. 
(83) Noah became the father of Shem, Ham and Japheth when he was 500 years old, 100 years before the time of the flood.  The flood occurred in the 600th year of Noah, and he lived for another 350 years after the flood, until the 58th year of Abraham. 
In total, 1,656 years. 
This version differs from the Septuagint by a total of 586 years.  This is the difference from the Septuagint in the number of years for which each of them lived before their sons were born; apart from Jared, Methuselah and Lamech, who are given the same number of years in both versions.  From the agreement with respect to these three, we can deduce that the version which we use is more reliable, because the longer length of years which is assigned to Jared and his descendants in the Hebrew version makes it clear that the years of their predecessors should also be the same as in the Septuagint version.  If the later and more recent generations are found, with the addition of the hundred years, to be assigned the same number of years in both the Hebrew and the Septuagint versions, how much likely is it that the previous generations, their forefathers, lived to be older than their descendants? For in the summary of each man's life, the number of years before his son was born, and the number of year that he lived afterwards, added together gives the same total of years in the Hebrew version and the Septuagint translation.  It is only the numbers of years before their sons were born which are shorter in the account preserved in the Jewish copies.  Therefore we suspect that this was something which the Jews did: that they ventured to compress and shorten the time before these sons were born, in order to encourage early marriages.  For if these most ancient of men, who lived such long lives, came quite soon to marriage and fatherhood, as their account declares, who would not want to imitate them and marry early? 
The Hebrew version, of the Samaritans 
Adam, the first man, became the father of Seth when he was 130 years old, and lived for another 800 years, until the 223rd year of Noah. 
(85) Seth became the father of Enosh when he was 105 years old, and lived for another 807 years, until the 335th year of Noah. 
Enosh became the father of Kenan when he was 90 years old, and lived for another 815 years, until the 433rd year of Noah. 
Kenan became the father of Mahalalel when he was 70 years old, and lived for another 840 years, until the 528th year of Noah. 
Mahalalel became the father of Jared when he was 65 years old, and lived for another 830 years, until the 583rd year of Noah. 
Jared became the father of Enoch when he was 62 years old, and lived for another 785 years, up until the time of the flood. 
Enoch became the father of Methuselah when he was 65 years old, and lived for another 300 years, until he was taken away in the 180th year of Noah. 
Methuselah became the father of Lamech when he was 67 years old, and lived for another 653 years, up until the time of the flood. 
Lamech became the father of Noah when he was 53 years old, and lived for another 600 years, up until the time of the flood. 
Noah became the father of Shem when he was 500 years old, 100 years before the time of the flood.  The flood occurred in the 600th year of Noah, and he lived for another 350 years after the flood, until the 83rd year of Eber. 
In total, 1,307 years. 
[The Samaritan version] differs from the Jewish version by 349 years; and it differs from the Septuagint translation by 935 years.  That is the end of our discussion of the period before the flood. 
Let us now proceed to the times after the flood.  First, let us note that the books of the Chaldaeans contain a very similar account to what is told by the Hebrews about the flood and about the ark which was built by Noah.  But because I have already written down the account which was recorded by the Chaldaeans in the appropriate place, I think it is pointless to repeat the same words here. 
(87) Some proof that the flood rose above the highest mountains was given a long time afterwards to us, as we wrote this [chronicle].  We observed that, in our own times, fish had been found on top of the highest peaks of the Libanus mountains.  Some men, who had gone there to cut out stones from the mountains for building, found various kinds of sea-fish, compacted into the mud in the hollows of the mountains.  The fish had survived until the present time, as if they had been artificially preserved, and the sight of them provided evidence to us that the ancient story was true.  Let our readers believe this as they wish - but we will now proceed to the following period of time. 
After the flood, according to the Septuagint translation 
In the second year [after the flood], Shem the son of Noah became the father of Arphaxad, and lived for another 500 years, until the 101st year of Peleg. 
Arphaxad became the father of Shelah when he was 135 years old, and lived for another 403 years, until the 9th year of Reu. 
Shelah became the father of Eber when he was 130 years old, and lived for another 406 years, until the 7th year of Serug. 
Eber became the father of Peleg when he was 134 years old, and lived for another 433 years, until the 38th year of Nahor. 
Peleg became the father of Reu when he was 130 years old, and lived for another 209 years, until the 75th year of Serug. 
In the days of Peleg, the land was divided up, and therefore the name Peleg means “division” in the Hebrew language.  Peleg [was the second man who] died before his father.  In his time, the tower [of Babel] was built; men began to speak many different languages, instead of the common language which they had used before; and each nation had its own language, as the Holy Scriptures say [ Genesis, 11'5-9 ].  (89) Gentile writers also tell the same story; Alexander Polyhistor mentions it in his book about the Chaldaeans, and Abydenus also gives a similar account.  I have already recorded what they say in my account of the Chaldaeans. 
After Peleg, Reu became the father of Serug when he was 135 years old, and lived for another 207 years, until the 77th year of Nahor. 
Serug became the father of Nahor when he was 130 years old, and lived for another 200 years, until the 51st year of Abraham. 
Nahor became the father of Terah when he was 79 years old, and lived for another 119 years, until the 49th year of Serug. 
Terah became the father of Abraham when he was 70 years old, and lived for another 135 years, until the 35th year of Isaac. 
The first year of Abraham, who was the forefather of the Jewish nation. 
In his time, Ninus and Semiramis ruled over Assyria and the whole of Asia. 
From the flood up until the first year of Abraham, there are 942 years.  From Adam up until the flood, 2,242 years.  In total, 3,184 years. 
After the flood, according to the Hebrew version of the Jews 
In the second year after the flood, Shem the son of Noah became the father of Arphaxad, and lived for another 500 years, until the 50th year of Jacob. 
Arphaxad became the father of Shelah when he was 35 years old, and lived for another 403 years, until the 48th year of Isaac. 
Shelah became the father of Eber when he was 30 years old, and lived for another 403 years, until the 18th year of Jacob. 
Eber became the father of Peleg when he was 34 years old, and lived for another 430 years, until the 79th year of Jacob. 
Peleg became the father of Reu when he was 30 years old, and lived for another 209 years, until the 48th year of Jacob. 
Reu became the father of Serug when he was 32 years old, and lived for another 207 years, until the 78th year of Abraham. 
(91) Serug became the father of Nahor when he was 30 years old, and lived for another 200 years, until the first year of Isaac. 
Nahor became the father of Terah when he was 29 years old, and lived for another 119 years, until the 49th year of Abraham. 
Terah became the father of Abraham when he was 70 years old, and lived for another 135 years, until the 35th year of Isaac. 
The first year of Abraham. 
From the flood up until the first year of Abraham, there are 292 years.  In total, 1,948 years from Adam.  This differs from the Septuagint translation by 1,235 years. 
After the flood, according to the Hebrew version of the Samaritans 
In the second year after the flood, Shem the son of Noah became the father of Arphaxad, and lived for another 500 years, until the 101st year of Peleg. 
Arphaxad became the father of Shelah when he was 135 years old, and lived for another 303 years, until the 39th year of Peleg. 
Shelah became the father of Eber when he was 130 years old, and lived for another 303 years, until the 39th year of Reu. 
Eber became the father of Peleg when he was 134 years old, and lived for another 270 years, until the 140th year of Reu. 
Peleg became the father of Reu when he was 130 years old, and lived for another 109 years, until the 109th year of Reu. 
Reu became the father of Serug when he was 132 years old, and lived for another 207 years, until the 77th year of Nahor. 
Serug became the father of Nahor when he was 130 years old, and lived for another 100 years, until the 21st year of Terah. 
Nahor became the father of Terah when he was 79 years old, and lived for another 69 years, until the 69th year of Terah. 
Terah became the father of Abraham when he was 70 years old, and lived for another 75 years, until the 75th year of Abraham. 
(93) The first year of Abraham, who was the forefather of the Jewish nation. 
From the flood up until the first year of Abraham, there are 942 years.  This is the same total as in the Septuagint translation. 
Therefore, the Hebrew version of the Samaritans agrees with our version in the number of years which it assigns to each of these men, before his son was born; but it differs from the Hebrew version of the Jews by 650 years.  For according to the Jewish version, there were 292 years from the flood up until the first year of Abraham. 
It is clear from the oldest version of the Hebrew scriptures, which is preserved by the Samaritans, and which is in agreement with the Septuagint translation, that these men, from the flood down to Abraham, did not have sons until they were over a hundred years old.  So who could suppose that their ancestors, who lived for much longer, had fathered children more quickly, rather than after the length of time which is recorded in the Septuagint [translation]? That is what any rational study would suggest; and so we must agree that [the numbers of years in] the Jewish version are incorrect for the whole period from Adam until Abraham, except for the three generations starting with Jared; and the Samaritan version is also incorrect, but only in the period from Adam until the flood, because in the period from the flood until Abraham, it records the same numbers of years as the Septuagint translation. 
Indeed, it is absolutely clear that [the dates in] the Hebrew version of the Jews are incorrect.  It even suggests that Noah and Abraham were alive at the same time - which is something that is not mentioned in any history.  For if, according to the Jewish scriptures, there were 292 years from the flood until Abraham, and Noah lived for another 350 years after the flood, it is obvious that Noah was alive until the 58th year of Abraham.  And it is possible to show that the Jewish version is untrustworthy in another way: because it says that the generations before Abraham were about 30 years old when their sons were born, but the generations after Abraham are said to have been much older when they fathered their children. 
(95) Therefore, because it has been definitely established that the Septuagint version was translated from the original, unadulterated Hebrew scriptures, it is reasonable for us to use that version for this chronicle - especially since it is the only version that is approved by the church of Christ, which has spread throughout the whole world, and it is the version that was handed down to us from the beginning by the apostles and disciples of Christ. 
According to the Septuagint [version], from Adam until the flood, there are 2,242 years.  From the flood until the first year of Abraham, 942 years.  In total, 3,184 years. 
According to the Hebrew [version] of the Jews, from Adam until the flood, there are 1,656 years.  From the flood until the first year of Abraham, 292 years.  In total, 1,948 years. 
According to the Hebrew [version] of the Samaritans, from Adam until the flood, there are 1,307 years.  From the flood until the first year of Abraham, 942 years.  In total, 2,249 years. 
All the versions agree that from Abraham up until Moses and the exodus of the Jews from Egypt, there are 505 years, which are calculated in the following way.  In the 75th year of Abraham, God appeared to him and said that he would give the promised land to his offspring.  It is written [ Genesis, 12'4-7 ]: “Abraham was seventy-five years old when he set out from Haran.  He took his wife Sarah, and his nephew Lot.” And a little later, Scripture adds: “The Lord appeared to Abraham, and said, 'To your offspring I give this land.' “ So from the first year of Abraham [until this promise made by God], there are 75 years; and from the 75th year of Abraham until the exodus of the Jews from Egypt, there are 430 years.  The Apostle Paul bears witness to this, when he says [ Galatians, 3'17-18 ]: “The law, introduced 430 years later, does not set aside the covenant previously established by God and thus do away with the promise.” And shortly afterwards, he adds: “God in his grace gave it to Abraham through a promise.” Abraham's son Isaac was born in Abraham's 100th year, 25 years after the promise which God made to him.  From then until the exodus from Egypt there are 405 years, so that the total time from the promise until [the exodus] is 430 years. 
(97) But God, who had appeared to Abraham, appeared to him again and said [ Genesis, 15'13 ]: “Know for certain that your descendants will be strangers in a country not their own, and they will be enslaved and ill-treated for four hundred years.” The word “descendants” is used deliberately; and to show that we should not allocate the [whole] time to Isaac, the period of 430 years is mentioned at the time of the exodus of the children of Israel from the land of the Egyptians.  Scripture says [ Exodus, 12'40-41 ]: “Now the length of time which they and their forefathers lived in Egypt and the land of Canaan, was 430 years.  At the end of the 430 years, all the Lord's divisions left Egypt by night.” Because the length of time, from when the promise was made by God (in the 75th year of Abraham), is 430 years, it is clear that from the first year of Abraham until Moses and the exodus from Egypt, there are 505 years. 
Some writers calculate the years in detail, as follows: 
Abraham became the father of Isaac, when he was 100 years old 
Isaac became the father of Jacob, when he was 60 years old 
Jacob became the father of Levi, when he was 86 years old 
Levi became the father of Kohath, when he was 46 years old 
Kohath became the father of Amram, when he was 63 years old 
Amram became the father of Moses, when he was 70 years old 
Moses led the people out of Egypt, when he was 80 years old 
So the total length of time, from the first year of Abraham until the exodus from Egypt, is 505 years. 
In total, from Adam until the exodus from Egypt, according to the Septuagint version, there are 3,689 years; according to the Jews, 2,453 years; according to the Samaritans, 2,753 years. 
The period from the death of Moses until Solomon and the building of the temple is described in one way by the book of Judges, with which the holy Apostle agrees in the Acts of the Apostles; but in a different way by the book of Kings and the Hebrew tradition.  It will be best to report both accounts, and then to choose the one which is more truthful. 
Firstly, it must be mentioned that Africanus, who compiled a Chronography in five books, seems to me to have been greatly mistaken in these matters.  (99) By his reckoning, there were 741 years from the exodus of Moses until Solomon and the building of the temple at Jerusalem, but he provides no evidence for most of this.  He is wrong, not only because what he says is contrary to the account of the Holy Scriptures, but also because he audaciously adds a total of 100 years on his own authority.  He assigns an additional 30 years to the elders after Joshua; and then after Samson, he places 40 years of anarchy, and another 30 years of peace.  By inserting these additional years without any proof, he carelessly produces an inflated total of over 740 years in his calculation of the time between Moses and king Solomon. 
By observing how many generations had elapsed, we can see that his account is improbable.  There were 14 generations from Abraham until David, and the ninth generation had already come to an end at the time of Moses, when Nahshon the son of Aminadab was leader of the tribe of Judah.  Nahshon died in the desert after leaving Egypt, and he was present when the people were first numbered.  It is clear that there were five generations after Nahshon until David: David was the son of Jesse, who was the son of Obed, who was the son of Boaz, who was the son of Salmon, who was the son of Nahshon.  So how can it be claimed that these five generations after Moses lasted for a total of more than 700 years? If the years are evenly distributed between the men in each generation, we will find that each of them lived for over 140 years before his son was born; and no-one in their senses would consider that possible.  Moses himself died at the age of 120 years, and his successor Joshua died at the age of 110 years.  Before their time, Joseph lived in all for 110 years, and earlier still Jacob, who was also called Israel, the patriarch of all the Jews, lived for 147 years. 
(101) So how can it be supposed that in later times, after Moses, anyone could have lived for as long as we have said? Africanus is clearly wrong in this matter.  However, Clemens reckoned that there were 674 years from Joshua the successor of Moses until the building of the temple, as can be found in the first book of his Miscellany [ Stromata, 1'21 ].  The holy Apostle Paul, in his speech to the Jews in the Acts of the Apostles, says as follows [ 13'19-22 ]: “Joshua destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, and he divided the land [amongst the Jews] for 450 years, and after that he gave them judges until the time of Samuel the prophet.  Then they asked for a king, and God gave them Saul the son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin, who reigned for 40 years.  After that, God removed Saul and gave them David in his place.” 
That is what the Apostle says.  According to him, there were 534 years after Joshua.  As well as the 450 years, which he assigns to the judges until Samuel, there must be added 40 years for Saul, another 40 years for David, and the four years of Solomon's reign before the building of the temple, which makes a total of 534 years from Joshua the successor of Moses until Solomon.  If you add the 40 years of Moses in the wilderness, and the 27 years of Joshua the son of Nun, then the total for the whole period will be 600 years, according to the Apostle.  The book of Judges is in agreement with his account, and assigns 450 years to the judges until Samuel, which are divided up as follows: 
According to the book of Judges 
After Joshua, rule by foreigners - 8 years 
Othniel - 40 years 
foreigners - 18 years 
Ehud and Shamgar - 80 years 
foreigners - 20 years 
Barak and Deborah - 40 years 
(103) foreigners - 7 years 
Gideon - 40 years 
Abimelech - 3 years 
Tola - 23 years 
Jair - 22 years 
foreigners - 18 years 
Jephthah - 6 years 
Ibzan - 7 years 
Elon - 10 years 
Abdon - 8 years 
foreigners - 40 years 
Samson - 20 years 
Eli, in whose time Samuel was born - 40 years 
The total for all the judges until Samuel is 450 years. 
The total is consistent with the words of the holy Apostle, but it does not include the years of Moses, or of Joshua the successor of Moses, or of Samuel, or of Saul.  The number of years for Samuel and Saul, and also for Joshua, may be uncertain; but as the Apostle suggests, the 40 years of Saul should be added to the 450 years of the judges, and if the 40 years of David and the 4 years of Solomon are joined to this, they make a total of 534 years, the same as in the account of the Apostle.  If we also add the 40 years of Moses in the wilderness, and the 27 years of Joshua the son of Nun, according to the tradition of the Hebrews, the total for the whole period is 600 years. 
If this total is compared with the five generations between Nahshon and David, which were mentioned previously, and the years are divided equally between the generations, it follows that the men in each generation lived for more than 115 years before their sons were born.  It is scarcely credible that, when Moses lived in all for 120 years, his descendants should reach almost the same age, before their sons were born.  Therefore there is nothing left but to move on at this point to the account in the book of Kings. 
The book of Kings clearly states that, from the exodus of the children of Israel until Solomon and the building of the temple, there was a total of 440 years; according to the Hebrew version, it was 480 years.  (105) The third book of Kings says as follows [ 1 Kings, 6'1 ]: “It happened in the 440th year after the exodus out of Egypt, that Solomon began to build the house of the Lord.” In the Hebrew version, it says “It happened in the 480th year” because the Jewish teachers, by a careful calculation, decided that the total came to 480 years.  They did not count separately the years in which the foreigners are said to have ruled over the people [of Israel], but counted just the time that the judges ruled them, and included within this the periods of foreign domination.  And this must be how it is done, because it is the only way that the total can be made to be 480 years.  I believe that when the holy Apostle stated the number of years, which was mentioned before, he was not speaking in the manner of a chronographer, or of someone who was making an exact calculation.  It would have been superfluous to introduce a discussion of chronology into his declaration of the message of salvation, and so he followed the common interpretation of the book of Judges. 
The book of Kings expressly states that there were 440 (or 480) years from the exodus until Solomon.  But if we look at the dates of each of the judges, and also count separately the times of foreign rule which are mentioned in the book of Judges, there is a total of 600 years between Moses and Solomon.  This total of 600 years is divided up as follows: 
Moses in the wilderness - 40 years 
Joshua - 27 years 
Judges and foreigners - 450 years 
(as the Apostle states, in accordance with the book of Judges) 
Samuel and Saul - 40 years 
David - 40 years 
Solomon (until the building of the temple) - 4 years 
Therefore the men in each of the five generations, which we mentioned previously, must have lived for 120 years before their sons were born; which is wholly incredible. 
However, if we follow the account in the book of Kings, we will have a total of 480 years, because the 120 years, during which the Hebrews were ruled by foreigners, have been removed.  (107) Instead, the years of their enslavement will have been combined with the years of their freedom in a single total, which is how the Hebrews themselves count it.  That is how we will calculate the dates here, by assuming that the times of foreign rule are included in the number of years assigned to each of the judges.  We have been particularly persuaded to use this method of calculation, by considering how long is allowed for the five generations from Nahshon to David.  If we subtract the 40 years of Moses in the wilderness and the four years of Solomon from the total of 480 years, there are 436 years left, up until the death of David.  If these years are divided equally between the five generations, there are 87 years for each generation.  If anyone investigates this, he will find that it is a plausible account, starting from the birth of David.  David was the eighth son of Jesse, and was born after his seven elder brothers when his father was an old man; and so we can reckon that something similar may have happened to his ancestors. 
Therefore we will follow here the account in the book of Kings, that there were 480 years from the exodus out of Egypt until Solomon and the building of the temple.  We will include the periods of foreign rule in the number of years assigned to each of the judges who ruled in succession. 
The book of Judges supports this decision in another way, by the words of Jephthah, who was one of the judges of the people.  When the Ammonites, who lived on the other side of the river Jordan, made war on Jephthah, he sent an embassy to the enemy, with this message [ Judges, 11'25-26 ]: “Are you better than Balak son of Zippor, king of Moab? Did he ever quarrel with Israel, or fight with them? For three hundred years Israel occupied Heshbon, Aroer, the surrounding settlements and all the towns along the Jordan.  Why did he not retake them during that time?” His message tells them that Moses and Balaam the son of Beor lived 300 years before their own time.  (109) The only way to produce this total of 300 years is to reckon that the periods when foreigners ruled [the people of Israel] are included in the number of years assigned to the judges who ruled them.  If anyone counts the periods of the people's enslavement, when they were ruled by foreigners, separately [from the judges], he will produce a total which far exceeds the 300 years.  But if he counts only the years which are assigned to the judges who ruled the people, he will find that there are 300 years from Moses until Jephthah, as Jepththah's message stated. 
Therefore, the chronology which we use for this period will be as follows: 
From Moses to Solomon 
Moses - 40 years 
Joshua - 27 years 
foreigners and Othniel the judge - 40 years 
foreigners and Ehud the judge - 80 years 
foreigners and Deborah and Barak - 40 years 
foreigners and Gideon - 40 years 
Abimelech - 3 years 
Tola - 23 years 
Jair - 22 years 
foreigners and Jephthah the judge - 6 years 
Ibzan - 7 years 
Abdon - 8 years 
foreigners and Samson - 20 years 
In his time, the Trojan war was fought. 
Eli - 40 years 
Samuel and Saul - 40 years 
David - 40 years 
Solomon (until the building of the temple) - 4 years 
In total, from Moses and the exodus out of Egypt until the building of the temple, 480 years.  - About Joshua, the book which bears his name tells us nothing more than that (111) he died at the age of 110 years.  But the Hebrews say that he was leader for 27 years; and so he was 43 years old when Moses went out of Egypt. 
About Samuel, because Scripture does not explicitly assign a number of years to him, I think that the length of Saul's reign which is mentioned by the holy Apostle should belong jointly to Saul and to Samuel.  It is clear that Samuel was leader of the people for many years; but Scripture states that Saul reigned for just two years.  In the first book of Kings, it says [ 1 Samuel, 13'1 ]: “Saul was the son of a year in his reigning; and he ruled over Israel for two years".  Symmachus makes this clearer in his translation: “Saul was like a year-old child in his reigning", meaning that Saul was pure and faultless at the beginning of his reign.  He kept that nature for two years, but when he turned to evil ways, he was rejected by God and suffered divine punishment.  Therefore the remaining years have been assigned to Samuel, and 40 years is the joint total for Saul and Samuel.  It is clear that Saul [or Samuel] ruled for this length of time, not only from the evidence of the Apostle, but also from a careful investigation of Scripture, which says [ 2 Samuel, 2'10 ] that after the death of Saul, “Ish-Bostheth son of Saul was 40 years old when he became king over Israel, and he reigned two years.  The house of Judah, however, followed David.” Ish-Bostheth must have been born after Saul became king, because Scripture [ 1 Samuel, 14'49 ], when talking of the beginning of Saul's reign, mentions three sons of Saul, but not this one.  Therefore we think that Ish-Bosheth was born later, and the length of Saul's reign was about the same as the age of his son after his death. 
- In summary, the third book of Kings [ 1 Kings, 6'1 ] says that there were 480 years from the exodus out of Egypt until Solomon and the building of the temple; there were 505 years from Abraham until Moses and the exodus; (113) there were 942 years from the flood until the first year of Abraham; and there were 2,242 years from Adam until the flood.  Altogether there were 4,170 years from Adam until Solomon and the building of the temple. 
The historian Josephus, in the first book of his Jewish Antiquities, produced some Phoenicians as witnesses to the date of Solomon and to his building of the temple, and the evidence of the men whom he mentions seems useful to me.  In that book, he writes as follows [ Against Apion, 1'106 ]: 
The evidence of the Phoenicians about the temple at Jerusalem, from Josephus 
I will now, therefore, pass from these records, and come to those that belong to the Phoenicians, and concern our nation, and shall produce proof of what I have said out of them.  There are then records among the Tyrians that take in the history of many years, and these are public writings, and are kept with great exactness, and include accounts of the facts done among them, and such as concern their transactions with other nations also, those I mean which were worth remembering.  Therein it was recorded that the temple was built by king Solomon at Jerusalem, one hundred forty-three years and eight months before the Tyrians built Carthage. 
In their annals the building of our temple is related; for Hirom, the king of Tyre, was the friend of Solomon our king, and had such friendship transmitted down to him from his forefathers.  He thereupon was ambitious to contribute to the splendour of this edifice of Solomon, and made him a present of one hundred and twenty talent talents of gold.  (115) He also cut down the most excellent timber out of that mountain which is called Libanus, and sent it to him for adorning its roof.  Solomon also not only made him many other presents, by way of requital, but gave him a country in Galilee also, that was called Chabulon.  But there was another passion, a philosophic inclination of theirs, which cemented the friendship that was between them; for they sent mutual problems to one another, with a desire to have them resolved by each other; wherein Solomon was superior to Hirom, as he was wiser than he in other respects: and many of the letters that passed between them are still preserved among the Tyrians.  Now, that this may not depend on my bare word, I will produce for a witness Dius, one that is believed to have written the Phoenician History after an accurate manner.  This Dius, therefore, writes thus, in his Histories of the Phoenicians: 
"Upon the death of Abibalus, his son Hirom took the kingdom.  This king raised banks at the eastern parts of the city, and enlarged it; he also joined the temple of Olympian Zeus, which stood before in an island by itself, to the city, by raising a causeway between them, and adorned that temple with donations of gold.  He moreover went up to Libanus, and had timber cut down for the building of temples.  They say further, that Solomon, when he was king of Jerusalem, sent problems to Hirom to be solved, and desired he would send others back for him to solve, and that he who could not solve the problems proposed to him should pay money to him that solved them.  And when Hirom had agreed to the proposals, but was not able to solve the problems, he was obliged to pay a great deal of money, as a penalty for the same.  As also they relate, that one Abdemon, a man of Tyre, did solve the problems, and propose others which Solomon could not solve, upon which he was obliged to repay a great deal of money to Hirom.” 
These things are attested to by Dius, and confirm what we have said upon the same subjects before.  (117) And now I shall add Menander the Ephesian, as an additional witness.  This Menander wrote the Acts that were done both by the Greeks and Barbarians, under every one of the Tyrian kings, and had taken much pains to learn their history out of their own records.  Now when he was writing about those kings that had reigned at Tyre, he came to Hirom, and says thus: 
"Upon the death of Abibalus, his son Hirom took the kingdom; he lived fifty-three years, and reigned thirty-four.  He raised a bank on that called the Broad Place, and dedicated that golden pillar which is in Zeus' temple; he also went and cut down timber from the mountain called Libanus, and got timber of cedar for the roofs of the temples.  He also pulled down the old temples, and built new ones; besides this, he consecrated the temples of Heracles and of Astarte.  He first built Heracles' temple in the month Peritius, and that of Astarte when he made his expedition against the Tityans [(?) inhabitants of Utica], who would not pay him their tribute; and when he had brought them under his control, he returned home.  Under this king there was a younger son of Abdemon, who mastered the problems which Solomon king of Jerusalem had recommended to be solved.” Now the time from this king to the building of Carthage is thus calculated. 
"Upon the death of Hirom, Baalbazerus his son took the kingdom; he lived forty-three years, and reigned seventeen years: after him succeeded his son Abdastartus; he lived thirty-nine years, and reigned nine years.  - Now four sons of his nurse plotted against him and slew him, the eldest of whom reigned twelve years: after them came Astartus, the son of Eleastartus; he lived fifty-four years, and reigned twelve years: after him came his brother Astharymus; he lived fifty-eight years, and reigned nine years: he was slain by his brother Phelles, who took the kingdom and reigned but eight months, though he lived fifty years: he was slain by Eithobalus, the (?) son of king Astartus, who reigned thirty-two years, and lived forty-eight years: (119) he was succeeded by his son Balezorus, who lived forty-five years, and reigned eight years: he was succeeded by Metenus his son; he lived thirty-two years, and reigned twenty-nine years: Physmalion succeeded him; he lived fifty-eight years, and reigned forty-seven years.  Now in the seventh year of his reign, his sister fled away from him, and built the city Carthage in Libya.  So the whole time from the reign of Hirom, till the building of Carthage, amounts to the sum of one hundred fifty-five years and eight months.” 
Since then the temple was built at Jerusalem in the twelfth year of the reign of Hirom, there were from the building of the temple, until the building of Carthage, one hundred forty-three years and eight months.  Therefore, what occasion is there for quoting any more evidence out of the Phoenician histories [on the behalf of our nation], since what I have said is so thoroughly confirmed already? To be sure, our ancestors came into this country long before the building of the temple; for it was not till we had gained possession of the whole land by war that we built our temple.  And this is the point that I have clearly proved out of our sacred writings in my Antiquities. 
That is what Josephus says. 
The list of times [of reigns] which is shown here covers 432 years, from the building of the temple, in the fourth year of Solomon, until the destruction [of the temple] by the Babylonians.  They are reckoned as follows: 
Solomon - for 37 years 
(The rest of his reign except for the first three years) 
Rehoboam - for 16 years 
Abijah - for 3 years 
Asaph - for 41 years 
Jehoshaphat - for 25 years 
Jehoram - for 8 years 
Ahaziah - for 1 year 
Athaliah his mother - for 7 years 
Joash - for 40 years 
(121) Amaziah - for 28 years 
Uzziah - for 52 years 
In his reign the Greeks established the first Olympic games [776 B.C.]. 
Jotham - for 16 years 
Ahaz - for 16 years 
Hezekiah - for 29 years 
Manasseh - for 55 years 
Amon - for 2 years 
Josiah - for 31 years 
Jehoahaz - for 3 months 
Jehoiakim - for 11 years 
Jehoiachin, also called Jekhoniah, his son - for 3 months 
Mattaniah, also called Zedekiah - for 11 years 
In total, 432 years. 
After this, the Babylonian captivity of the Jews and the abandonment of their country lasted for 70 years, which came to an end in the 65th Olympiad [520-517 B.C.], in the second year of Dareius the king of the Persians, as the Holy Scriptures say. 
Clemens agrees with our account, when he writes in the first book of his Miscellany as follows [ Stromata, 1'21 ]: “The captivity lasted for seventy years, and ended in the second year of Dareius Hystaspes, who had become king of the Persians, Assyrians, and Egyptians; in whose reign, as I said above, Haggai and Zechariah and the angel of the twelve [Malachi] prophesied.  And the high priest was Joshua the son of Josedec.” That is what Clemens says. 
More evidence that there was a period of 70 years from the destruction of the temple until the second year of Dareius is provided by the prophet Zechariah, who said in the second year of Dareius [ 1'12 ] : “Almighty Lord, how long will you not pity Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, which you have despised? This is the seventieth year.”  - But the acute observer may say: “But why is it said at the beginning of the book of Ezra [ 1'1 ], that in the first year of Cyrus the king of the Persians, to fulfil the word of God which was spoken through the prophet Jeremiah, the Lord aroused the spirit of Cyrus the king of the Persians, and he gave an order throughout his kingdom in a written decree.” And then, adding what follows in that book, (123) he will show that it refers to the release of the Jews, and how Cyrus ordered the temple to be rebuilt.  From this you would assume that the 70 years of the captivity came to an end in the reign of Cyrus, and not in the reign of Dareius. 
To this I reply, that the words of the prophets refer to two different periods of 70 years.  The one is reckoned from the destruction of the temple, and came to an end in the second year of Dareius, as the statement of Zechariah makes clear.  The second is from the enslavement of the Jews, up until the capture of Babylon and the destruction of the kingdom of the Chaldaeans.  This is reckoned from the time of the prophecy, and came to an end in the reign of Cyrus, and not in the reign of the Dareius, in accordance with the word of Jeremiah, in which he foretells what will happen [ 29'10 ]: “Thus says the Lord.  When the 70th year has been completed, I will come to you, and I will fulfil my promise to you, that I will lead you back to this place.” And again, he prophesies as follows [ 25'11-12 ]: “All this land will be deserted and ruined, and they will serve the king of the Babylonians amongst the foreigners; and the Lord says about that nation, and about the land of the Chaldaeans, that I will bring them to ruin.” 
All this was fulfilled in the reign of Cyrus, by counting the years, not from the destruction of the temple, but earlier, from the second year of Jehoiakim, king of the Jews, because it was in this year that Nebuchadnezzar the king of the Babylonians first enslaved the Jews; or even earlier, from when the prophet Jeremiah first began to prophesy.  From that time, there were 40 years until the siege of Jerusalem and the burning of the temple, and 70 years until the first year of the reign of Cyrus.  The one period of 70 years lasted from the beginning of Jeremiah's prophecy until the reign of Cyrus; but there were 30 years from the destruction of the temple until the reign of Cyrus, and [the other period of] 70 years was completed in the second year of the reign of Dareius.  The temple was restored in the eighth year of Dareius. 
From that time onwards, the Jews remained without their own kings.  They had their own high priests as leaders, but were subject first to the kings of the Assyrians, then to the kings of the Persians, and after them to the Macedonians who ruled after Alexander, up until the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, who as king of Syria forced the Jews to adopt Greek customs.  - At that time, Mattathias the son of Asamonaeus, who was a priest at Jerusalem, his son Judas, who (125) was surnamed Maccabaeus, and their successors re-established the Jewish state, and ruled it continuously until the time of Augustus. 
In Augustus' time, Herodes was the first foreigner to become king of the Jews, with the support of the Romans; during his reign, our Saviour Jesus Christ was born.  This was the fulfilment of the prophecy spoken by Moses [ Genesis, 49'10 ]: “The sceptre will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs and the obedience of the nations is his".  These are the words of the prophecy. 
But the total length of time, from Solomon and the first building of the temple until the second year of Dareius and the rebuilding of the temple, is 502 years.  And from Moses and the exodus from Egypt until Solomon and the first building of the temple, is 480 years.  And from the first year of Abraham until the exodus, is 505 years.  And from the flood until the first year of Abraham, is 942 years.  And from Adam to the flood, is 2242 years.  So the overall total, from Adam until the second year of Dareius and the second building of [the temple in] Jerusalem, is 4680 years.  And from the second year of Dareius which was the first year of the 65th Olympiad [520 B.C.] [until the ministry of Christ], is 137 Olympiads and 548 years. 
To show this in more detail, the kings of the Persians are listed here, along with the lengths of their reigns: 
Cyrus reigned for 30 years 
Then Cambyses - for 6 years 
Dareius reigned for 36 years 
In Dareius' second year, the temple in Jerusalem was restored.  Dareius reigned for a further 34 years. 
Then Xerxes the son of Dareius - for 20 years 
In his reign, the story of Esther took place. 
Artabanus - for 6 months 
Artaxerxes “Macrocheir” - for 41 years 
In his reign lived Ezra, the sacred scribe of the Hebrews, who is said to have memorised the whole of Holy Scripture, and who transmitted it to the Jews in the new Hebrew script, because they were living in enemy lands.  - Nehemiah the head cupbearer also lived at this time; with the approval of the king, he returned to Judaea (127) and rebuilt Jerusalem, and surrounded the city with a wall; for up until then the city had been deserted, except for the temple which was rebuilt under Dareius.  After Artaxerxes there were the following kings of the Persians: 
Xerxes the second - for 2 months 
Sogdianus - for 6 months 
Dareius “Nothus” - for 19 years 
Artaxerxes “Mnemon” - for 40 years 
Artaxerxes, also called Ochus - for 26 years 
Arses the son of Ochus - for 4 years 
Dareius the son of Arsames - for 6 years 
Alexander, the king of the Macedonians, killed Dareius and ruled over the Persian empire for 6 years; he had ruled over the land for 6 years before killing Dareius. 
The empire of the Persians lasted for 234 years.  Beginning in the 55th Olympiad [560-557 B.C.], it ended in the 113th Olympiad [328-325 B.C.].  And from the second year of Dareius until the death of Alexander, who died in the first year of the 114th Olympiad [324 B.C.], is 197 years. 
After the death of Alexander, there were the following kings of Egypt and Alexandria: 
1. Ptolemy the son of Lagus - for 40 years 
2. Ptolemy Philadelphus - for 38 years 
3. Ptolemy Euergetes - for 24 years 
4. Ptolemy Philopator - for 21 years 
5. Ptolemy Epiphanes - for 22 years 
6. Ptolemy Philometor - for 34 years 
In his time, Antiochus Epiphanes was king of Syria; and in Antiochus' reign occurred the events which [are related] in the books of Maccabees.  These books tell how Antiochus tried to convert the Jews to Greek customs; he defiled the temple by putting up sacred images there, and carried off the sacred vessels of the temple in the 151st Olympiad [176-173 B.C.]. 
So from the death of Alexander of Macedonia to the first year of Antiochus Epiphanes, is 150 years.  And from the second year of Dareius until Antiochus, is 347 years.  - In the reign of Antiochus, Mattathias the son of Asamonaeus (129) showed great devotion to his country's religion, and became leader of the Jews.  After his death, his son Judas Maccabaeus [became leader]; and after him, his brother Jonathan [was leader]; and after him, his brother Simon [was leader]. 
The account of the book of Maccabees ends in the reign of Simon; it covers a period of 40 years, up until the end of the 161st Olympiad [136-133 B.C.].  And from this time until Augustus the Roman emperor, is 88 years. 
After Simon, according to Africanus and Josephus, Jonathan, also called Hyrcanus, was leader of the Jews for 26 years.  After him, Aristobulus [was leader] for one year.  Aristobulus was the first to wear the royal diadem, acting as king and high priest of the Jewish race; this was 484 years after the Babylonian captivity.  After him, Alexander, also called Jannaeus, was king for 25 years.  After him, his widow Alexandra, also called Sallina, [was queen] for 9 years.  And after her, Aristobulus and Hyrcanus [were kings].  In their reign, Pompeius the Roman general forced the Jews to pay tribute to the Romans.  He set up Hyrcanus as their king, but led off Aristobulus as a prisoner to Rome. 
In Hyrcanus' reign, in the (?) 184th Olympiad [44 B.C.], Julius Caesar became emperor of the Romans, for 4 years and 7 months.  And after him, Augustus (Sebastos in Greek) was emperor for 56 years and 6 months.  In his reign, Herodes was the first foreigner to be made king of the Jews by the Romans; his family came from Ascalon, and he had no right to the throne.  In Herodes' reign, Christ the Son of God was born in Bethlehem of Judaea. 
After Augustus, Tiberius became emperor.  In his 15th year, the fourth year of the 201st Olympiad [28 A.D.], our Saviour and Lord, Jesus Christ the Son of God, appeared amongst men. 
So from Antiochus Epiphanes until the 15th year of Tiberius, is 201 years.  And from Alexander of Macedonia until the same year of Tiberius, is 352 years.  And from the second year of Dareius [until the same year of Tiberius], is 548 years.  (131) And from the 15th year of Tiberius until the final siege of Jerusalem in the second year of Vespasianus, is 42 years. 
From Adam until the second year of Dareius, is 4680 years.  And from the second year of Dareius until the 15th year of Tiberius, is 548 years.  So the total, from Adam until the 15th year of Tiberius, is 5228 years. 
From the 15th year of Tiberius until the 20th anniversary of Constantinus Victor Augustus, is 300 years.  So the overall total, according to the Hebrews in the Septuagint version, is (?) 5518 years.  According to the Jews' Hebrew text, it is 1237 years less; and according to the Samaritans' Hebrew text, it is 935 years less. 
This is the way in which the numbers of years are calculated, according to the Hebrews. 
(131)THE EGYPTIANS 
How [the history of] the Ethiopians is included in the chronology of the Egyptians, and [the times when] the Ptolemaei ruled over Egypt and Alexandria. 
How the Egyptians have kept records of their dates. 
After the chronology of the Chaldaeans, the Assyrians and the Hebrews, it it time to move on to the records of the Egyptians. 
Diodorus, in the first book of his historical library [ 1.44 ], writes as follows: “Some of them tell the story that the first rulers in Egypt were gods and heroes, who ruled for slightly less than sixteen thousand years; the last of the gods who ruled there was Horus the son of Isis.  Then men became kings of the country, in the time of Myris, and have continued for slightly less than five thousand years, until the 180th Olympiad [60-57 B.C.], when I visited Egypt, in the reign of Ptolemy, who was called the New Dionysus. 
(133) “For the great majority of that time, the country has been ruled by native kings; but for short periods it was ruled by Ethiopians, by Persians and by Macedonians.  There were only four Ethiopian kings, and they did not rule in a single sequence, but at separate times; in total, they ruled for slightly less than 36 years.  During the supremacy of the Persians, which was established when Cambyses conquered the [Egyptian] people by force, and which lasted for 135 years, the Egyptians rose in revolt, because they could not endure the harsh government and the impiety [of the Persians] towards the native gods.  Then the Macedonians and their descendants became kings, for 276 years.  For the whole of the rest of the time, [Egypt] was governed by native rulers, who consisted of 470 kings and 5 queens. 
"Records about all of these rulers have been kept by the priests in their sacred books, which have been continuously handed down from one [generation] to another, since the most ancient times.  These books tell about the character of each king, their virtue and their bravery, their spirit and their nobility, as well as the achievements of each of them in their reigns.  However it is unnecessary, and moreover worthless, for us to write down the deeds of each of them; especially since many of them were judged to be insignificant even in their own times.” That is what Diodorus says. 
And now it is right and fitting for us to add to this Manetho's account of the Egyptians, which seems to be a reliable history. 
From the Egyptian records of Manetho, who composed in three books commentaries about the gods, demi-gods, spirits, and the mortal kings who ruled over the Egyptians, up until the time of Dareius the king of the Persians. 
The first man amongst the Egyptians was Hephaestus, who discovered fire for them; he was the father of Sol [the Sun].  After him came [(?)Agathodaemon; then] Cronus; then Osiris; then Typhon the brother of Osiris; and then Horus the son of Osiris and Isis.  These were the first rulers of the Egyptians.  (135) After them, one king succeeded another until the time of Bidis, for a total of 13,900 years - calculated by lunar years, which lasted for 30 days.  That is the period which we now call a month, but the men of that time called it a year. 
After the gods, a race of demi-gods ruled for 1,255 years.  After them, other kings ruled [the country] for 1,817 years.  After them, 30 kings from Memphis [ruled] for 1,790 years; and then another ten kings from Thinis ruled for 350 years.  And then the shades and demi-gods were kings, for 5,813 years.  The total for all of these is 11,000 years - which are lunar years, or months. 
The total time, which the Egyptians assign to the gods and demi-gods and spirits is 24,900 lunar years - which is the equivalent of 2,206 solar years.  If you compare this figure with the chronology of the Hebrews, you will find almost the same number of years.  For Aegyptus is called Mizraim by the Hebrews; and he was born many years after the time of the flood.  It was after the time of the flood that Ham the son of Noah became the father of Mizraim, who was also called Aegyptus; and when the nations were scattered around the earth, Mizraim set off for Egypt to live there.  According to the Hebrews, there were 2,242 years in all from Adam until the flood. 
So let the Egyptians boast of their antiquity, in the ancient times which preceded the flood.  They say that they had some gods, demi-gods and shades.  If the years which are recorded by the Hebrews are converted to months, the total is over 20,000 lunar years, so that there are about the same number of months as are contained in the years recorded by the Hebrews, when we count the years from the first-born man up until Mizraim.  Mizraim was the patriarch of the Egyptians, and the first dynasty of the Egyptians was descended from him. 
But if, even so, the number of years is found to be too large, then we must investigate the reason for this.  Perhaps it happened that there were many kings in Egypt at the same time.  They say that some of them were kings of Thinis, some of Memphis, some of Sais, and some of Ethiopia; and there were yet others in other places.  (137) And as it seems that these dynasties ruled each in its own (?) nome, it is very unlikely that they ruled in succession to each other.  Rather, some of them ruled in one place, and others in another place.  Therefore the increase in the number of years can be explained in that way.  But we will leave this matter, and proceed to the details of the chronology of the Egyptians. 
After the demi-gods and spirits, they reckon that the first dynasty consisted of 8 kings.  The first of these kings was Menes, who was an outstanding ruler.  Starting from him, we will list the rulers of each generation.  The succession of rulers was as follows. 
1st Dynasty. Menes and his seven descendants: 
Menes of Thinis, whom Herodotus [ 2.4 ] calls Min, ruled for (?) 60 years.  - He led his armies beyond the borders of his kingdom, and he was held in high esteem.  He was seized by a hippopotamus. 
His son Athotis ruled for 27 years.  - He built a palace in the city of Memphis.  He was skilled in medicine, and wrote books about anatomy. 
His son Cenchenes, 39 years 
Venephes, 42 years  - In his reign there was a severe famine.  He built the pyramids near Cocome. 
Usaphais, 20 years 
Niebais, 26 years 
Semempses, 18 years  - In his reign there were many prodigies, and a great pestilence. 
Ubienthis, 26 years. 
In total: 252 years 
2nd Dynasty. 9 kings: 
Firstly, Bochus, in whose reign a chasm appeared in the ground at Bubastis, and many were killed. 
Then Caechōus, in whose reign Apis and Mnevis and the goat of Mendes were honoured as gods. 
(139) Biophis, in whose reign it was decided that women too could reign as monarchs. 
After him, there were three other kings, but nothing significant happened in their reigns. 
In the reign of the seventh king, there is a legend that the river Nile flowed for eleven days with honey mixed in its water. 
Then Sesochris [ruled] for 48 years.  He is said to have been 5 cubits and 3 palms tall. 
Nothing worthy of mention happened in the reign of the ninth king. 
In total: 297 years 
3rd Dynasty. 8 kings of Memphis: 
Necherochis  - In his reign the Libyans revolted from the Egyptians, but when the moon unexpectedly grew in size, they were moved by fear and surrendered again. 
Sesorthus  - He was called Asclepius by the Egyptians because of his skill in medicine.  He discovered how to make buildings out of hewn stone, and also gave some attention to writing. 
The other six kings achieved nothing worthy of mention. 
In total: 197 years 
4th Dynasty. 17 kings of Memphis, from another family: 
The third king was Suphis  - He built the largest pyramid, which Herodotus [ 2.124 ] says was built by Cheops.  He was disdainful towards the gods, but later he repented and wrote the sacred book, which the Egyptians hold in the highest regard. 
Nothing worthy of mention is recorded about the other kings. 
In total: 448 years 
5th Dynasty. 31 kings of Elephantine: 
The first king was Othoēs, who was assassinated by his bodyguards. 
The fourth king was Phiops, who became king at the age of six, and reigned until 100 years [old]. 
[Eusebius does not give a total number of years for this dynasty] 
6th Dynasty. 
Queen Nitocris, who was the noblest and most beautiful woman of her time, with a fair complexion.  She is said to have built the third pyramid.  In total: [they ruled for] 203 years 
(141) 7th Dynasty. 5 kings of Memphis, who ruled for 75 (?) days. 
8th Dynasty. 5 kings of Memphis, who ruled for 100 years. 
9th Dynasty. 4 kings of Heracleopolis, who ruled for 100 years. 
The first king was Achthoēs, who was the most terrible of all the kings up to his time.  He cruelly maltreated the inhabitants throughout Egypt, but later he fell into madness and was killed by a crocodile. 
10th Dynasty. 19 kings of Heracleopolis, who ruled for 185 years. 
11th Dynasty. 16 kings of Diospolis, who ruled for 43 years. 
After them, Ammenemes reigned for 16 years. 
At this point, Manetho finishes his first book, which contains 192 kings who reigned in total for 2,300 years [and 75 days]. 
From the second book of Manetho: 
12th Dynasty. 7 kings of Diospolis: 
Firstly, Sesonchosis the son of Ammenemes, for 46 years 
Ammanemes, for 38 years  - He was killed by his own eunuchs. 
Sesostris, for 48 years  - He is said to have been 4 cubits, 3 palms and 2 digits tall.  He conquered the whole of Asia in nine years, as well as Europe as far as Thrace.  Everywhere he erected monuments to show his control over the nations; he depicted men's genitals on the columns for brave nations, and women's genitals for cowardly nations.  Therefore the Egyptians gave him the first place of honour after Osiris. 
Lamares, for 8 years  - He built the labyrinth in the Arsinoite [nome], as his own tomb. 
(143) His successors ruled for 42 years. 
In total: they ruled for 245 years 
13th Dynasty. 60 kings of Diospolis, who ruled for 453 years. 
14th Dynasty. 76 kings of Xois, who ruled for 484 years. 
15th Dynasty. [? 17] kings of Diospolis, who ruled for 250 years. 
16th Dynasty. 5 kings of Thebes, who ruled for 190 years. 
17th Dynasty. Shepherds.  Phoenician brothers and foreign kings, who captured Memphis: 
Firstly, Saites, for 19 years  - The Saite nome was named after him.  They established a city in the Sethroite nome, and from there they advanced and conquered the Egyptians. 
Secondly, Bnon, for 40 years 
Archles, for 30 years 
Apophis, for 14 years 
In total: 103 years.  Joseph seems to have (?) lived at the time of these kings. 
18th Dynasty. 14 kings of Diospolis: 
Amosis, 25 years 
Chebron, 13 years 
Ammenophis, 21 years 
Misphres, 12 years 
Misphragmuthosis, 26 years 
(145) Tuthmosis, 9 years 
Amenophis, 31 years  - He is the one who is thought to be Memnon, the “singing” statue. 
Orus, 38 years 
Achencherses, 16 years  - In his reign, Moses led the exodus of the Jews out of Egypt. 
Acherres, 8 years 
Cherres, 15 years 
Armaïs, who was also [called] Danaus, 5 years  - After 5 years he was expelled from Egypt, and fled from his brother Aegyptus to Greece, where he captured Argos and became the king of the Argives. 
Rhamesses, who was also called Aegyptus, 68 years 
Amenophis, 40 years 
In total: 348 years 
19th Dynasty. 5 kings of Diospolis: 
Sethos, 55 years 
Rhampses, 66 years 
Amenephthis, (?) 40 years 
Ammenemes, 26 years 
Thuōris, 7 years  - Homer [ Od_4'126 ] calls him Polybus, the husband of Alcandra, and in his reign Troy was captured. 
In total: 194 years 
This is [the end] of the second book of Manetho, which contains (?) 92 kings who reigned in total for 2,121 years. 
From the third book of Manetho: 
20th Dynasty. 12 kings of Diospolis, who ruled for 172 years. 
21st Dynasty. 7 kings of Tanis: 
Smendis, 26 years 
Psusennes, 41 years 
Nephercheres, 4 years 
Amenophthis, 9 years 
(147) Osochor, 6 years 
Psinaches, 9 years 
Psusennes, 35 years 
In total : 130 years 
22nd Dynasty. 3 kings of Bubastis: 
Sesonchosis, 21 years 
Osorthon, 15 years 
Tacelothis, 13 years 
In total : 49 years 
23rd Dynasty. 3 kings of Tanis: 
Petubastis, 25 years 
Osorthon, whom the Egyptians called Heracles, 9 years 
Psammūs, 10 years 
In total : 44 years 
24th Dynasty. Bocchoris of Sais, 44 years.  In his reign, a lamb spoke. 
25th Dynasty. 3 Ethiopian kings: 
Sabacon, who captured Bocchoris and burnt him alive, ruled for 12 years 
Sebichos, his son, 12 years 
Taracus, 20 years 
In total : 44 years 
26th Dynasty. 9 kings of Sais: 
Ammeres the Ethiopian, (?) 12 years 
Stephinathis, 7 years 
Nechepsos, 6 years 
Nechao, 8 years 
Psammetichus, 44 years 
Nechao II, 6 years  - He captured Jerusalem, and took king Jehoahaz back as a prisoner to Egypt. 
Psammuthes (sammetichus) II, 17 years 
Vaphres, 25 years  - The remaining Jews fled to him after Jerusalem had been captured by the Assyrians. 
Amosis, 42 years 
In total : 167 years 
27th Dynasty. 8 Persian kings: 
(149) Cambyses, in the 5th year of his reign, ruled the Egyptians for 3 years 
the magi, 7 months 
Dareius, 36 years 
Xerxes, the son of Dareius, 21 years 
Artaxerxes, 40 years 
Xerxes II, 2 months 
Sogdianus, 7 months 
Dareius, the son of Xerxes, 19 years 
In total : 120 years and 4 months 
28th Dynasty. Amyrtaeus of Sais, 6 years. 
29th Dynasty. 4 kings of Mendes: 
Nepheretes, 6 years 
Achoris, 13 years 
Psammuthes, 1 year 
Muthes, 1 year 
Nepherites, 4 months 
In total : 21 years and 4 months 
30th Dynasty. 3 kings of Sebennytus: 
Nectanebis, 10 years 
Teōs, 2 years 
Nectanebus, 8 years 
In total : 20 years 
31st Dynasty. 3 Persian kings: 
Ochus, in the 20th year of his reign, ruled over Egypt for 6 years 
Arses, the son of Ochus, 4 years 
Dareius, who was killed by Alexander the Macedonian, 6 years 
All of the above is contained in the third book of Manetho. 
What follows will be taken from Greek writers, because the kingdom of the Egyptians came to an end at this point.  But as Flavius Josephus has produced evidence from the books of Manetho, in his history of the ancestors of the Hebrews, I think that it is right to record his words, which appear in the first [book of] his Antiquity of the Jews, as follows. 
(151) Josephus, [quoting] from the books of Manetho 
I shall begin with the writings of the Egyptians; not indeed of those that have written in the Egyptian language, which it is impossible for me to do.  But Manetho, who was by birth an Egyptian, had some knowledge of Greek learning, as is very evident; for he wrote the history of his own country in the Greek language, by translating it, as he says himself, out of their sacred records; he also finds great fault with Herodotus for his ignorance and inaccuracy about Egyptian history.  Now this Manetho, in the second book of his Egyptian History, writes concerning us in the following manner.  I will set down his very words, as if I were to bring the very man himself into a court as a witness: “Tutimaeus.  In his reign it happened, I know not why, that God was angry with us, and there came, unexpectedly, men of ignoble birth from the east, and they were bold enough to make an expedition into our country, and easily subdued it by force, because we did not even hazard a battle with them.  So when they had overpowered our rulers, they afterwards burnt down our cities, and demolished the temples of the gods, and treated all the inhabitants in the most barbarous manner.  Some of them they slew, and led their children and their wives into slavery.  At length they made one of themselves king, whose name was Salitis; he also lived at Memphis, and he made both the upper and lower regions pay tribute, and left garrisons in places that were the most suitable for them.  He chiefly aimed to secure the eastern parts, because he foresaw that the Assyrians, who were the most powerful people of that time, would want to seize his kingdom, and invade it.  He found in the Sethroite nome a city very suitable for this purpose, on the east side of the Bubastic channel of the river, which for theological reasons was called Avaris.  He rebuilt it, and made it very strong by the walls he built around it, and put in a very large garrison of two hundred and forty thousand armed men, to guard it.  (153) Salitis came there in summer time, partly to gather his corn, and pay his soldiers their wages, and partly to exercise his armed men, and thereby to intimidate foreigners.  After this man had reigned nineteen years, another, whose name was Bnon, reigned for forty-four years; after him reigned another, called Apachnas, thirty-six years and seven months; after him Apophis reigned sixty-one years, and then Jannas fifty years and one month; after all these, Assis reigned for forty-nine years and two months.  And these six were the first rulers among them, who were all along making war with the Egyptians, and wanted gradually to eradicate them.  This whole nation was styled Hyksos, that is, 'shepherd-kings': for the first syllable hyk, according to the sacred dialect, denotes 'a king', and sos is 'a shepherd', according to the ordinary dialect; and of these is compounded Hyksos: but some say that these people were Arabians.” Now in another copy it is said that this word does not denote 'kings', but, on the contrary, denotes that the shepherds were 'captives'.  For hyk, as well as hak with an aspirate, in the Egyptian language expressly denotes 'captives'; and this to me seems the more probable opinion, and more in accordance with ancient history. 
"These people, whom we have before named kings, and called shepherds also, and their descendants,” as he says, “kept control of Egypt for five hundred and eleven years.” After this, he says, “The kings of Thebais and the other parts of Egypt rebelled against the shepherds, and a terrible and long war was fought between them.  - A king, whose name was Misphragmuthosis, subdued the shepherds, and after driving them out of the other parts of Egypt, he shut them up in a place (155) that contained ten thousand arourai; this place was named Avaris.” Manetho adds, “The shepherds built a large and strong wall round all this place, in order to keep all their possessions and their prey within a place of strength, but Thummosis the son of Misphragmuthosis made an attempt to take them by force and by siege, surrounding them with an army of four hundred and eighty thousand men.  But, despairing of taking the place by siege, he came to an agreement with them, that they should leave Egypt, and go, without suffering any harm, wherever they chose; and, after this agreement was made, they went away with all their families and possessions, not fewer in number than two hundred and forty thousand, and travelled out of Egypt, through the wilderness, towards Syria.  But as they were in fear of the Assyrians, who were then the rulers of Asia, they built a city in that country which is now called Judaea; the city was large enough to contain this great number of men, and they called it Jerusalem.” Now Manetho, in another book of his, says that this nation, thus called 'shepherds', were also called 'captives', in the sacred books of his country.  And this account of his is true; for feeding of sheep was the employment of our forefathers in the most ancient ages, and as they led such a wandering life in feeding sheep, they were called 'shepherds'.  Nor was it without reason that they were called 'captives' by the Egyptians, since one of our ancestors, Joseph, told the king of Egypt that he was a captive, and afterwards brought his brothers into Egypt with the king's permission.  But as for these matters, I shall give a more detailed account of them elsewhere. 
But now I shall produce the Egyptians as witnesses to the antiquity of our nation.  I shall therefore bring in Manetho again, and what he writes about the sequence of dates.  - He says: “When this people or shepherds left Egypt and went to Jerusalem, Tethmosis the king of Egypt, who drove them out, reigned for another twenty-five years and four months, and then he died; (157) after him his son Chebron took the kingdom for thirteen years; after whom came Amenophis, for twenty years and seven months; then came his sister Amesses, for twenty-one years and nine months; then came her son Mephres, for twelve years and nine months; after him was Mephramuthosis, for twenty-five years and ten months; after him was Thmosis, for nine years and eight months; after him came Amenophis, for thirty years and ten months; after him came Orus, for thirty-six years and five months; then came his daughter Acenchres, for twelve years and one month; then was her brother Rathotis, for nine years; then came his son Acencheres, for twelve years and five months; then came another Acencheres, for twelve years and three months; after him Armais, for four years and one month; after him was Ramesses, for one year and four months; after him came Armesses Miamūn, for sixty-six years and two months; after him Amenophis, for nineteen years and six months; after him came Sethosis, also called Ramesses, who had an army of cavalry, and a strong navy.  This king appointed his brother, Armais, to be his deputy over Egypt.  He also gave him all the other authority of a king, except that he instructed him, that he should not wear the diadem, nor do any harm to the queen, the mother of his children, and that he should not meddle with the other concubines of the king.  Then he made an expedition against Cyprus, and Phoenicia, and besides against the Assyrians and the Medes.  He subdued them all, some by his arms, some without fighting, and some by the terror of his great army; and being puffed up by the great successes he had had, he went on still more boldly, and overthrew the cities and countries that lay in the east.  But after some considerable time, Armais, who was left in Egypt, recklessly did all those very things, which his brother had forbidden him to do.  He used violence against the queen, and continued to make use of the rest of the concubines, without sparing any of them.  At the persuasion of his friends he put on the diadem, and set up in opposition to his brother.  But then the chief of the priests in Egypt wrote letters to Sethosis, and informed him of all that had happened, and how his brother had set up in opposition to him.  - Sethosis therefore returned back to Pelusium immediately, and recovered his kingdom again.” The country was called Egypt from his name; for Manetho says, that Sethosis was himself called Aegyptus, (159) and his brother Armais was called Danaus. 
This is Manetho's account.  And it is clear from the number of years allocated by him to this interval, if they are all added together, that these shepherds, as they are here called, were no other than our forefathers, who were delivered out of Egypt, and came from there to inhabit this country, three hundred and ninety-three years before Danaus came to Argos; although the Argives look upon Danaus as their most ancient king.  Manetho, therefore, provides evidence from the Egyptians records for two points which are of the greatest consequence to our purpose.  In the first place, that we came out of another country into Egypt; and secondly, that our departure from Egypt was so ancient in time as to have preceded the siege of Troy by almost a thousand years.  As to those things which Manetho adds, not from the Egyptian records, but, as he confesses himself, from some stories of an uncertain origin, I will disprove them later in detail, and shall demonstrate that they are no better than incredible fables. 
That is what Josephus says in the book which we referred to.  He [? Manetho] describes the kings of the Egyptians from the beginning until the end, up until one of the kings that they appointed, called Nectanebus.  I have already mentioned Nectanebus earlier on, at the appropriate point in the list of kings.  After Nectanebus, Ochus the king of the Persians gained control of Egypt, and ruled over it for 6 years.  After him, his son Arses [was king] for 4 years.  After him, Dareius [was king] for 6 years.  Then Alexander the Macedonian killed Dareius the Persian, and ruled over both the Asians and the Egyptians.  Alexander founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt in the sixth year of his reign.  After the death of Alexander, his empire was divided between many different rulers, and the Ptolemaei became kings of Egypt and Alexandria.  The dates of these kings are as follows. 
The kings of Egypt and the city of Alexandria after the death of Alexander of Macedonia, from the writings of Porphyrius: 
Alexander of Macedonia died in the 114th Olympiad [324 B.C.], after reigning for a total of 12 years.  He was succeeded by Aridaeus, also called Philippus, who was a brother of Alexander, but by a different mother; for he was the son of Philippus and Philinna of Larissa.  Aridaeus ruled for 7 years, before he was killed in Macedonia by Polysperchon the son of Antipater. 
(161) A year after Philippus became king, Ptolemy the son of Arsinoe and Lagus was sent to be satrap of Egypt.  He was satrap for 17 years, and then he was king for 23 years; so altogether he ruled for 40 years, until his death.  However, while still alive he abdicated in favour of his son Ptolemy, called Philadelphus, and he lived for a further two years after his son had taken over as king; so we reckon the reign of this first Ptolemy, called Soter, to be 38 rather than 40 years long. 
He was succeeded by his son Ptolemy, who as we said was called Philadelphus.  The son reigned for two years while his father was still alive, and then for a further 36 years after his death, so that we reckon the length of his reign to be 38 years, the same as for his father. 
After him, the third Ptolemy, called Euergetes, reigned for 25 years. 
After him, the fourth Ptolemy, called Philopator, reigned for 17 years. 
After him, the fifth Ptolemy, called Epiphanes, reigned for 24 years. 
This Ptolemy had two sons, the elder called Philometor and the younger called the second Euergetes, who ruled after him for a combined total of 64 years.  We have counted their years together, because they were constantly fighting against each other and alternately gained and lost control of the kingdom, which makes it difficult to calculate their years separately. 
Philometor first ruled on his own for 11 years; but when Antiochus invaded Egypt and removed him from the throne, the inhabitants of Alexandria put the younger brother in charge.  Then they forced Antiochus out of Egypt, and freed Philometor.  They called that the 12th year of Philometor, and the first year of Euergetes.  After that the two kings ruled jointly until the 17th year, but from the 18th year onwards Philometor ruled on his own. 
At that time the elder brother, who had been deposed by the younger brother, was restored by the Romans.  (163) So he ruled in Egypt, and made his brother ruler of Libya instead, and after that Philometor ruled as sole king of Egypt for 18 years.  When he died in Syria, which was also under his control, Euergetes was called back from Cyrene and proclaimed king.  Euergetes counted his years from the time when he first became king, so that he seems to have reigned for 25 [29?] years after his brother's death, but officially he reigned for 54 years.  The 36th year of Philometor should have been called the first year of his reign, but instead he ordered it to be written as the 25th year of his reign.  So the combined length of both their reigns is 64 years, 35 years under Philometor and the rest under Euergetes; but to split it up into separate reigns would lead to confusion. 
Ptolemy the second Euergetes had two sons by Cleopatra, the elder called Ptolemy Soter and the younger called Ptolemy Alexander.  The elder son was appointed by his mother to reign first; she thought he would obey her, so favoured him for a time.  But in the tenth year of his reign he murdered his parents' friends, and was deposed by his mother because of his cruelty, and fled to Cyprus. 
His mother summoned her younger son from Pelusium, and appointed him to be king along with her.  So the younger son ruled jointly with his mother, and the country was governed in both their names; this year was called the 11th year of Cleopatra and the 8th year of Alexander, because Alexander counted his years from the 4th year of his brother's reign, which was when he started to rule over Cyprus.  This state of affairs continued until the death of Cleopatra; after she died, Alexander ruled on his own, and he reigned for 18 years in all after he returned to Alexandria, though officially he reigned for 26 years.  In the 19th year, after a dispute with his soldiers, he went away to collect an army to bring to Egypt against them.  - However they followed him, and under the leadership of a relative of the kings called Tyrrus, (165) they defeated him in a naval battle.  Alexander was forced to take refuge with his wife and daughter in Myra, a city of Lycia; from there, he crossed over to Cyprus, where he was defeated by the admiral Chaereas, and died. 
After his expulsion, the inhabitants of Alexandria sent envoys to the elder brother, Ptolemy Soter, and established him as king again, when he had sailed back from Cyprus.  Soter lived for another 7 years and 6 months after his return, and the whole period after the death of the brothers' father was counted in his name, which was a total of 35 years and 6 months.  But if we split the period up according to the actual course of events, Ptolemy Soter ruled at two different times for a total of 17 years and 6 months, and in between the younger brother, Ptolemy Alexander, ruled for 18 years.  The inhabitants of Alexandria were unable to completely delete Alexander's reign from the records, but as far as was in their power they erased all mention of it, because Alexander had assaulted them with the help of some Jews.  So they do not count the years of his reign, but attribute the whole 36 years to the elder brother. 
Similarly, they do not attribute the next 6 months after the death of the elder brother, which make up the complete 36 years, to Cleopatra, the daughter of the elder brother and wife of the younger brother, who took over control of the kingdom after the death of her father.  Nor do they formally attribute to Alexander the 19 days in which he jointly reigned with her. 
This Alexander was the son of the younger Ptolemy, who was also called Alexander, and the stepson of Cleopatra.  He was staying in Rome, when he was summoned back to Alexandria because there were no men of the royal family left in Egypt.  He married the aforesaid Cleopatra, and when she had willingly handed over power to him, after an interval of 19 days he murdered her.  Then he himself was seized and killed by the armed men in the gymnasium, because of the foul murder which he had committed. 
(167) This Alexander was succeeded by Ptolemy, called the new Dionysus, who was the son of Ptolemy Soter and the brother of the aforesaid Cleopatra.  He reigned for 29 years. 
His daughter Cleopatra was the last of the dynasty of the Ptolemaei.  She reigned for 22 years. 
These reigns also did not follow an continuous sequence from start to finish, as laid out in the records, but each of them had some interruptions in the middle of it.  In the reign of the new Dionysus, a three year period was ascribed to the rule of his daughters Cleopatra Tryphaena and Berenice, one year as a joint reign and the following two years, after the death of Cleopatra Tryphaena, as the reign of Berenice on her own.  Because Ptolemy had gone off to Rome, and was spending a long time there, his daughters took over the rule of the kingdom, as if he was not going to return, and Berenice took on some men of the royal family as co-rulers.  But when Ptolemy returned from Rome, he forget all affection towards his daughter, and in his anger at what she had done, he put her to death. 
In the first years of Cleopatra's reign, she shared power with her elder brother Ptolemy and then with others, for the following reasons.  When the new Dionysus died, he left four children, two sons called Ptolemy and daughters called Cleopatra and Arsinoe.  He handed over power to the two eldest children, Ptolemy and Cleopatra, who reigned jointly for 4 years.  And this state of affairs would have continued, if Ptolemy had not wanted to seize sole power for himself, in contravention of his father's orders.  However he was fated to die soon afterwards, after being defeated in a naval battle by Julius Caesar, who intervened on behalf of Cleopatra. 
After Ptolemy's death, Cleopatra's younger brother, who was also called Ptolemy, became joint ruler with his sister, as proposed by Caesar.  - The next year was called the fifth year of Cleopatra and the first year of Ptolemy, and so it continued for the following two years, (169) until he died.  He was plotted against and killed by Cleopatra, in his 4th year, which was Cleopatra's 8th year.  From then onwards Cleopatra ruled on her own, up until her 15th year.  However, her 16th year was also called the first year, because after the death of Lysimachus the king of Chalcis in Syria, the Roman general Marcus Antonius gave Chalcis and the surrounding regions to Cleopatra.  And from then onwards for the remaining years up until the 22nd year, which was the last of Cleopatra's reign, the years were counted in the same way, so that the 22nd year was also called the 7th year. 
Octavius Caesar, also called Augustus, conquered Egypt in the battle of Actium, and succeeded Cleopatra as ruler of Egypt in the second year of the 184th Olympiad [43 B.C.].  From the first year of the 111th Olympiad [336 B.C.], when Aridaeus Philippus became king, until the second year of the 184th Olympiad [43 B.C.], is 73 Olympiads and one additional year.  So the total duration of the rule of all the kings of Alexandria, down to the death of Cleopatra, is 293 years. 
So the reign-lengths of the Ptolemaei are as follows: 
Alexander the Macedonian began his reign in the first year of the 111th Olympiad [336 B.C.].  He founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt, and ruled for 12 years and 7 months.  After him, the kings of the city of Alexandria and the whole of Egypt were: 
Ptolemy the son of Lagus - for 40 years 
Ptolemy Philadelphus - for 38 years 
Ptolemy Euergetes - for 24 years 
Ptolemy Philopator - for 21 years 
Ptolemy Epiphanes - for 24 years 
Ptolemy Philometor - for 31 years 
(171) Ptolemy the second Euergetes - for 29 years 
Ptolemy Physcon, or Soter - for 17 years and 6 months 
Ptolemy Alexander, after the expulsion of [Soter], his predecessor - for [10] years 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, returning from exile after the expulsion of Alexander - for 8 years 
Ptolemy Dionysus, called Philadelphus - for 30 years 
Cleopatra the daughter of Ptolemy - for 22 years 
In her reign, Gaius Julius Caesar became the first Roman emperor.  The next emperor, Octavius Caesar Augustus, called Sebastos in Greek, killed Cleopatra and put an end to the dynasty of the Ptolemaei, who had ruled for 295 years. 
THE GREEKS 
According to the historians of their ancient times. 
The kings of the Athenians 
The kings of the Argives 
The kings of the Sicyonians 
The kings of the Lacedaemonians 
The kings of the Corinthians 
Who ruled the sea, and for how long 
The individual Olympiads of the Greeks 
The early kings of the Macedonians 
The kings of the (?) Macedonians, Thessalians, Syrians and Asians after Alexander 
Dates of the Greeks 
The Sicyonians and their kings are said to be the most ancient of the Greeks.  The first king to rule Sicyon was Aegialeus, at the same time as Ninus and Belus, who are the first recorded kings of the Assyrians and of Asia.  The Peloponnese was originally called Aegialeia, after this Aegialeus. 
Inachus is said to have been the first king of the Argives, 235 years after the start of the Sicyonian kingdom.  (173) Cecrops, called Diphyes ("two-formed") was the first king of the Athenians, about 300 years after the start of the Argive kingdom, and 533 years after the start of the Sicyonian kingdom. 
This chronicle will start with the earliest rulers, and first it will give a full list of the kings of the Sicyonians.  There is considerable disagreement amongst the older writers who composed chronicles of Greek history; but, as far as possible, we will copy the accounts which are agreed by most writers. 
The chronographer Castor lists the dates of the Sicyonian kings in his chronicle; and then he provides a summary of them, as follows: “We will provide a list of the kings of Sicyon, starting with Aegialeus, the first king, and ending with Zeuxippus.  These kings reigned for a total of 959 years.  After the kings, six priests of [Apollo] Carneius were appointed; this priesthood lasted for 33 years.  Then Charidemus was appointed priest; but he could not bear the expense, and went into exile.” 
That is what Castor wrote.  The exact succession of the Sicyonian kings is reckoned as follows. 
The kings of the Sicyonians 
1. Aegialeus, for 52 years.  The Peloponnese was originally called Aegialeia, after this Aegialeus.  He is said to have started to rule Sicyon in the 15th year of Belus, the first king of the Assyrians.  According to legend, [Belus] was the son of Poseidon and Libya. 
2. Europs, for 45 years.  He reigned at the same time as Ninus, the son of Belus. 
3. Telchin, for 20 years.  He reigned at the same time as Semiramis. 
4. Apis, for 25 years.  The Peloponnese was then called Apia, after this Apis. 
5. Thelxion, for 52 years. 
6. Aegydrus, for 34 years. 
7. Thurimachus, for 45 years.  During his reign, Inachus became the first king of the Argives. 
8. (175) Leucippus, for 53 years. 
9. Messapus, for 47 years.  During his reign Egypt was ruled by Joseph, as the Hebrews record. 
10. Eratus, for 46 years. 
11. Plemnaeus, for 48 years. 
12. Orthopolis, for 63 years. 
13. Marathonius, for 30 years.  During his reign, Cecrops Diphyes became the first king of Attica. 
14. Marathus, for 20 years.  During his reign, Moses led the Hebrews out of Egypt, as will be shown in due course. 
15. Echyreus, for 55 years.  During his reign, Danaus became king of the Argives. 
16. Corax, for 30 years. 
17.Epopeus, for 35 years. 
18. Laomedon, for 40 years. 
19. Sicyon, for 45 years.  During his reign, the kingdom of the Argives came to an end, after lasting for 540 years. 
20. Polybus, for 40 years. 
21. Inachus, for 40 years. 
22. Phaestus, for 8 years. 
23. Adrastus, for 4 years. 
24. Polypheides, for 31 years.  During his reign, Troy was captured. 
25. Pelasgus, for 20 years.  During his reign, Aeneias was king of the Latins. 
26. Zeuxippus, for 31 years. 
In all, there were 26 kings of Sicyon, who reigned for 959 years.  After Zeuxippus, there were no more kings, and instead there were priests of [Apollo] Carneius. 
1. The first priest was Archelaus, for one year. 
2. Automedon, for one year. 
3. Theoclytus, for four years. 
4. Euneus, for six years. 
5. Theonomus, for nine years. 
6. (177) Amphigyes, for (?) twelve years. 
7. Lastly, Charidemus for one year.  He could not bear the expense, and went into exile.  He was priest (?) 352 years before the first Olympiad [i.e.  1128 B.C.]. 
The total duration of the kings and priests of the Sicyonians was 998 years. 
After the rulers of the Sicyonians, it will be fitting to give a summary of the kings of the Argives, as far as can be established from the ancient histories.  Castor mentions them in these words. 
Castor, about the kings of the Argives: 
Next we will list the kings of the Argives, starting with Inachus and ending with Sthenelus the son of Crotopus.  These kings reigned for a total of 382 years, until Sthenelus was driven out by Danaus, who seized control of Argos.  The descendants of Danaus ruled Argos for 162 years, ending with Eurystheus, the son of Sthenelus, the son of Perseus.  After Eurystheus, the descendants of Pelops ruled Argos for (?) 105 years, starting with Atreus, and ending with Penthilus, Tisamenus and Cometes (?) the son of Orestes, in whose time occurred the invasion of the Heracleidae.  The dates of each of the Argive kings are as follows. 
The kings of the Argives 
1. Inachus, for 50 years.  The country was called Inachia, after this Inachus.  He began to rule the Argives at the time of Thurimachus, who was the seventh king of the Sicyonians. 
2. Phoroneus, for 60 years.  In his reign, Ogygus founded Eleusis. 
3. Apis, for 35 years.  The country was then called Apia, after this Apis.  During his reign, Joseph governed the Egyptians, as recorded by the Hebrews. 
4. Argus, the son of Zeus and Niobe, for 70 years.  The name of the country was changed to Argeia, after this Argus. 
5. Criasus, for 54 years. 
6. Phorbas, for 35 years.  During his reign, Cecrops Diphyes became king of the Athenians. 
7. (179) Triopas, for 46 years.  During his reign, Moses led the Hebrews out of Egypt. 
8. Crotopus, for 21 years. 
9. Sthenelus, for 11 years.  In all, these kings reigned for 382 years.  Danaus drove out Sthenelus, and ruled Argos, as did his descendants after him.  The succession of kings, and their dates, are as follows. 
10. Danaus, for 50 years. 
11. Lynceus, for 41 years. 
12. Abas, for 23 years. 
13. Proetus, for 17 years. 
14. Acrisius, for 31 years. 
In all, there were rulers of Argos for a period of 544 years, until the end of Danaidae. 
After Acrisius, the Argives began to be ruled from Mycenae, when the descendants of Pelops took over the kingdom, in the time of Eurystheus the son of Sthenelus.  Pelops was the first ruler of the Peloponnese, and he organised the Olympic games. 
After Acrisius, when the Argives began to be ruled from Mycenae: 
Eurystheus was king for 45 years. 
Then the sons of Pelops, Atreus and Thyestes, for 65 years. 
After them, Agamemnon, for 30 years.  In the 18th year of his reign, Troy was captured. 
Aegisthus, for 17 years. 
Orestes, Tisamenus, Penthilus and Cometes for 58 years, until the return of the Heracleidae, when they conquered the Peloponnese.  From the return of the Heracleidae until the migration of the Ionians, there are (?) 60 years.  From the migration of the Ionians until the first Olympiad [776 B.C.], there are 267 years. 
Next it will be fitting to provide a list of the kings of Athenians, by summarising the accounts of some of the ancient historians. 
- Ogygus is said to have been the first [king] of the Athenians; (181) the Greeks relate that their great ancient flood happened in his reign.  Phoroneus the son of Inachus, king of the Argives, is said to have lived at the same time.  Plato mentions this in the Timaeus [ 22 ], as follows: “When he wished to introduce them to ancient history, so that they could discuss the antiquity of this city, he started his account with the old stories about Phoroneus and Niobe, and then what happened after the flood.” Ogygus lived in the time of Messapus, the ninth king of Sicyon, and Belochus, the eighth king of the Assyrians. 
After Ogygus, because of the great destruction caused by the flood, Attica remained without a king for 190 years, until the time of Cecrops.  The number of years is reckoned from the kings of the Argives, who began before Ogygus.  From the end of the reign of Phoroneus, king of the Argives, in whose time Ogygus' flood is said to have happened, until Phorbas, in whose time Cecrops became king of Attica, is a period of 190 years.  From Cecrops until the first Olympiad, there are counted seventeen kings, and twelve archons for life; in this time, the marvellous myths of the Greeks are said to have occurred.  The Greeks count the kings of Attica from [Cecrops], because they do not know for certain the dates of any earlier kings.  Castor explained this in the summary of this history, as follows. 
Castor, about the kings of the Athenians: 
We will now list the kings of the Athenians, starting with Cecrops, called Diphyes, and ending with Thymoetes.  The total duration of the reigns of all these kings, called Erechtheidae, was 450 years.  - After them, Melanthus of Pylus, son of Andropompus, became king, (183) followed by his son Codrus.  The total duration of their two reigns was (?) 58 years.  [When the kings came to an end, they were replaced by archons who ruled for life], starting with (?) Medon son of Codrus, and ending with Alcmaeon son of Aeschylus.  The total duration of the rule of the archons for life was 209 years.  The next archons held power for 10 years each; there were seven of these archons, and altogether they ruled for 70 years.  Then the archons started to hold power for one year each, starting with Creon and ending with Theophemus, in whose time the history and glorious achievements of our country came to a complete end. 
That is what Castor wrote.  Now we will provide a list of each of the kings. 
The kings of the Athenians 
1. Cecrops Diphyes, for 50 years.  In his reign lived Prometheus, Epimetheus and Atlas.  He started to rule the Athenians in the time of Triopas, the seventh king of the Argives, and Marathonius, the thirteenth king of Sicyon.  At this time, Moses was prominent amongst the Hebrews, as we will show in due course.  Also in his reign, the flood of Deucalion is said to have engulfed Thessaly, just as fire devastated the land of Ethiopia in the time of Phaethon. 
2. Cranaus, an aboriginal, for 9 years. 
3. Amphictyon, the son of Deucalion and son-in-law of Cranaus, for (?) 10 years.  The deeds of the Danaidae are said to have occurred in his reign. 
4. Erichthonius, the son of Hephaestus, who is called Erechtheus by Homer, for 50 years.  The Idaean Dactyls lived in his reign. 
5. Pandion, the son of Erichthonius, for 40 years.  The rape of Core [Persephone], and what is related about Triptolemus, occurred in his reign. 
6. (185) Erechtheus the son of Pandion, for 50 years.  The deeds of Perseus occurred in his reign. 
7. Cecrops, the brother of Erechtheus, for 40 years.  The deeds of Dionysus occurred in his reign. 
8. Pandion, the son of Erechtheus, for 25 years.  Afterwards Pandion went into exile, and became king of Megara.  The deeds of Europa, Cadmus and the Sparti occurred in his reign. 
9. Aegeus, the son of Pandion, for 48 years.  The deeds of the Argonauts and the Centaurs occurred in his reign; and Heracles held the athletic games. 
10. Theseus, the son of Aegeus, for 30 years.  In his reign, Minos established laws. 
11. Menestheus, the son of Peteus, son of Orneus son of Erechtheus, for 23 years.  In his reign, Troy was captured. 
12. Demophon, the son of Theseus, for 33 years.  The deeds of Odysseus and Orestes occurred in his reign; and Aeneias was king of Lavinium. 
13. Oxyntes, the son of Demophon, for 12 years.  In his reign, the Amazons burnt down the temple at Ephesus. 
14. Apheidas, the son of Oxyntes, for one year. 
15. Thymoetes, the brother of Apheidas, for 8 years. 
16. Melanthus of Pylus, the son of Andropompus, for 37 years.  In his reign the Heracleidae returned and occupied the Peloponnese. 
17. Codrus, the son of Melanthus, for 21 years.  In his reign, the Ionians were driven out of Achaea, and took refuge in Athens. 
Archons of the Athenians, who held power for life 
18. Medon, the son of Codrus, for 20 years. 
19. Acastus, the son of Medon, for 36 years.  - In his reign occurred the migration of the Ionians, (187) including Homer, so they say.  At the same time, Solomon built the temple at Jerusalem, as will be shown in due course. 
20. Archippus, the son of Acastus, for 19 years. 
21. Thersippus, the son of Archippus, for 41 years. 
22. Phorbas, the son of Thersippus, for 30 years. 
23. Megacles, the son of Phorbas, for 30 years. 
24. Diognetus, the son of Megacles, for 28 years.  At this time, Lycurgus was in his prime. 
25. Pherecles, the son of Diognetus, for 19 years. 
26. Ariphron, the son of Pherecles, for 20 years.  At this time, the kingdom of the Assyrians came to an end, and Sardanapallus was killed. 
27. Thespieus, the son of Ariphron, for 27 years.  At this time, Lycurgus established laws for the Spartans. 
28. Agamestor, the son of Thespieus, for 17 years. 
29. Aeschylus, the son of Agamestor, for 23 years.  In his twelfth year, the first Olympiad was held, in which Coroebus won the stadion contest. 
The total duration of the Athenian rulers, from Cecrops down to the first Olympiad [776 B.C.], was 780 years; from Ogygus to the first Olympiad, there were 970 years.  From this time onwards, it is convenient to calculate dates according to the Olympiads. 
30. After Aeschylus, Alcmaeon ruled the Athenians, for 2 years. 
(189) After Alcmaeon, the Athenians decided to appoint archons for ten years each: 
Charops, for ten years. 
Aesimides, for ten years. 
Cleidicus, for ten years. 
Hippomenes, for ten years. 
Leocrates, for ten years. 
Apsander, for ten years. 
Eryxias, for ten years. 
After this, they decided to appoint archons for one year each.  The first annual archon was Creon, in the 24th Olympiad [684-681 B.C.].  From that time onwards, an archon was appointed for each year; but it is not necessary to list their names. 
This concludes the summary of the dates of the ancient rulers of the Athenians, as related by the older and more reliable historians.  We have set down the dates and events before the capture of Troy, which are not reliably recorded, as well as we can from the different accounts.  Nor are the events from the capture of Troy until the first Olympiad accurately recorded.  However Porphyrius, in the first book of his Philosophical History, gives a summary in the following words: 
"Apollodorus says that there are 80 years from the capture of Troy [1183 B.C.] until the expedition of the Heracleidae to the Peloponnese [1103 B.C.]; there are 60 years from the return of the Heracleidae until the settling of Ionia [1043 B.C.]; there are 159 years from then until Lycurgus [884 B.C.]; and there are 108 years from Lycurgus until the first Olympiad [776 B.C.].  Altogether, there are 407 years from the capture of Troy until the first Olympiad.” 
Next, it will be fitting to give an account of the Olympiads as they are recorded by the Greeks. 
(191) Olympiads of the Greeks 
First Olympiad: in which Coroebus of Elis won the stadion race.  From this time onwards, the dates of the Greeks seem to have been accurately recorded; before then, the dates are supplied according to the whim of each writer. 
About the institution of the Olympic Games 
It is necessary to say a little about the origin of the games.  Some writers, who trace back the institution of the games to the earliest times, say that they had been held before Heracles, by one of the Idaean Dactyls; and then by Aethlius, as a challenge for his sons (from his name, the competitors were called athletes); and then by his son Epeius; and then Endymion, Alexinus and Oenomaus were each in charge of the sacred festival.  Then Pelops held the games in honour of his father Zeus; and next, Heracles the son of Alcmene.  There were ten generations (or, according to some, only three complete festivals) from Heracles until the time of Iphitus. 
Iphitus was a citizen of Elis, who was concerned about the condition of Greece, and wished to rid the cities of their wars.  He sent envoys from the whole of the Peloponnese to consult [the god] about release from the wars which gripped them.  The god gave this response to the Peloponnesians: 
You who dwell in the Peloponnese, gather round the altar; 
Make sacrifice, and obey the instructions of the prophets. 
He added these words to the Eleans: 
Elean servants of the gods, who maintain your ancestral rites, 
Protect your homeland, and desist from war. 
Lead the Greeks in mutually just friendship, 
Until the gathering comes in the year of good will. 
(193) As a result of this, Iphitus proclaimed the truce [which had been fixed by Heracles at the summer solstice; they no longer fought against each other,] and he organised the games together with Lycurgus, who happened to be his relative because they were both descended from Heracles.  On this occasion, the only contest was the stadion race; later the other contests were added in their turn. 
Aristodemus of Elis relates that the victors in the athletic contests began to be registered in the 27th Olympiad after Iphitus.  Before then, no-one had thought to record the athletes' names.  In the 28th Olympiad Coroebus of Elis won the stadion race, and he was the first victor to be registered.  This was then established as the first Olympiad, from which the Greeks calculate their dates. 
Polybius says the same as Aristodemus; but Callimachus says that thirteen Olympiads passed after Iphitus without victors being registered; and Coroebus was the victor in the 14th Olympiad.  Many writers state that the institution of the games by Heracles the son of Alcmene occurred (?) 419 years before what is counted as the first Olympiad.  The Eleans hold the games every fifth year, with a gap of four years in between them. 
The Greek Olympiads, from the first Olympiad up until the 247th, when Antoninus the son of Severus was emperor of the Romans: 
1st Olympiad [776 B.C.] - Coroebus of Elis was the victor in the stadion race.  The stadion race was the only contest for the first thirteen Olympiads. 
2nd [772 B.C.] - Antimachus of Elis, stadion race  [At this time] Romulus and Remus were born. 
3rd [768 B.C.] - Androclus of Messenia, stadion race 
(195) 4th [764 B.C.] - Polychares of Messenia, stadion race 
5th [760 B.C.] - Aeschines of Elis, stadion race 
6th [756 B.C.] - Oebotas of Dyme, stadion race 
7th [752 B.C.] - Diocles of Messenia, stadion race 
8th [748 B.C.] - Anticles of Messenia, stadion race 
9th [744 B.C.] - Xenocles of Messenia, stadion race 
10th [740 B.C.] - Dotades of Messenia, stadion race 
11th [736 B.C.] - Leochares of Messenia, stadion race 
12th [732 B.C.] - Oxythemis of Coroneia, stadion race 
13th [728 B.C.] - Diocles of Corinth, stadion race 
14th [724 B.C.] - Desmon of Corinth, stadion race  A double race was added, which was won by Hypenus of Elis. 
15th [720 B.C.] - Orsippus of Megara, stadion race  A long race was added, and the runners were naked; the winner was Acanthus of Laconia. 
16th [716 B.C.] - Pythagoras of Laconia, stadion race 
17th [712 B.C.] - Polus of Epidaurus, stadion race 
18th [708 B.C.] - Tellis of Sicyon, stadion race  A wresting contest was added, and the winner was Eurybatus of Laconia.  A pentathlon contest was also added, and the winner was Lampis of Laconia. 
19th [704 B.C.] - Menus of Megara, stadion race 
20th [700 B.C.] - Atheradas of Laconia, stadion race 
21st [696 B.C.] - Pantacles of Athens, stadion race 
22nd [692 B.C.] - Pantacles for a second time