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š č ǰ γ    
Note on the transliteration:
The transliteration system of the BP/TLB is based on the Unicode/UTF-8 system. However, there may be difficulties with some of the letters – particularly on PC/Windows-based systems, but not so much on the Mac. We have chosen the most accepted older and traditional systems of transliteration against, e.g, Wylie for Tibetan, since with Unicode it is possible, in Sanskrit and Tibetan, etc., to represent one sound with one letter in almost all the cases (excepting Sanskrit and Tibetan aspirated letters, and Tibetan tsa, tsha, dza). We thus do not use the Wylie system which widely employs two letters for one sound (ng, ny, sh, zh etc.).
We ask you in particular to note the use of the ’ apostrophe and not the ' representing the avagrāha in Sanskrit, and most important the ’a-chuṅ in Tibetan. On the Mac the ’ is Alt-M.
If you cannot find the letters on your key-board, you may click on the link "Diacritica" to access it for your search.

Translator Chinese (A.D. 1018-1058)

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Abbreviations for TLB
Khvs -

Khaḍgaviṣāṇasūtra (Khaggavisāṇasutta)

A -

Tabo MS fragments (Ta p(h)o / rTa po)

Anon. -



Buddhist Manuscripts in the Schøyen Collection, see Braarvig (2000-2006)

B -

Berlin MS Kanjur (catalogued by Hermann Beckh 1914)

Bspṭ -

Bodhisatvapiṭakasūtra (Sūtra)

Bśv -

Brahmaśrīvyākaraṇa (sūtra)


Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association (

Chi -


C -

Cone (Co ne) Kanjur (catalogued by Taishun Mibu 1959) and Tanjur

D -

Derge (sDe dge) Kanjur and Tanjur (catalogued by Hakuju Ui et al., 1934)

Dūn -

Dūnhuáng; city in the Gansu province of China home to a major cave complex where a large number of manuscripts and artifacts have been retrieved; see St. and The International Dunhuang Project.

Dvr -

Drāmiḍāvidyārājā (sūtra)

E -

Newark MS Kanjur

ed. -


Eng -


F -

Phug brag MS Kanjur (catalogued by Jampa Samten, 1992)

G -

Ganden (dGa' ldan) or "Golden Manuscript" Tanjur

Gān -


Ger -


GMs -

The “Gilgit Manuscript of the Vajracchedikā” as edited in Schopen (1989).

Gp -

Gaṅgottaraparipṛcchā (sūtra)

H -

Lhasa (lHa sa) Kanjur (catalogued by Jikidō Takasaki, 1965)

J -

Lithang (Li thaṅ) or 'Jaṅ Sa tham Kanjur (catalogued by Yoshiro Imaeda, 1982-84)

JK -

Johnston, E.H. and A. Kunst (1978)

Kg -

bKa’ ’gyur (Tibetan Buddhist canon of the Buddha's words), Derge edition, references to volume (Tibetan class and syllable numbering), page and line.

K -

Peking edition of the Kanjur prepared in 1684/92 under the Kangxi emperor

Lat -


L -

London MS Kanjur (listed by Eric. D Grinestead, 1967)

M -

Peking edition of the Mongolian Kanjur (catalogued by Louis Ligeti, 1942-44)

Mon -


MonT -

Mongolian Tanǰur, Peking, 1748.

MS -


MVy -


N -

Narthang (sNar thaṅ) Kanjur (listed by Shōdō Nagashima, 1975) and Tanjur (listed by Taishun Mibu, 1967)

O -

O rgyan gliṅ or Tawang MS Kanjur

p -

pañjikā (commentary)

Pāl -



Pali Text Society

Q -

Peking edition of Kanjur and Tanjur prepared in 1737 under the Qianlong emperor; also the modern photographic reprint of teh Peking edition, which is based on a combination of the 1717/20 and 1737 issues (reprinted and catalogued in The Tibetan Tripitaka, 1955-1961)

rec -


S -

Stog (sTog) Palace MS Kanjur (catalogued by Tadeusz Skorupski, 1985)

San -




Śpś -

Śatapañcāśatka (= Prasādapratibhodhava) of Mātṛceṭa

St. -


Manuscripts retreived from Dūnhuáng by Auriel Stein; catalogued in La Vallée Poussin (1962).





ṭīkā (commentary)

T -

Tokyo or Kawaguchi MS Kanjur

T. -

大正新修大藏經, Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō, Tokyo 1926-34, references to text no., page and line.

Tg -

bsTan ’gyur (Tibetan Buddhist canon of secondary litterature), Derge edition, references to volume (Tibetan class and syllable numbering), page and line.

Tib -


tr. -


TśPk -

Triśatikāyāḥ prajñāpāramitāyāḥ kārikāsaptatiḥ

U -

Urga Kanjur (catalogued by Géza Bethlenfalvy, 1982)

Uv -

Udānavarga, compiled by Dharmatrāta



W -

Edition of Kanjur and Kanjur Supplement (Yoshiro Imaeda, 1977) prepared under the Wanli emperor

Y -

Edition of Kanjur prepared under the Yongle emperor (Silk 1996)

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Utviklet av: Jens Braarvig, Asgeir Nesøen, Damir Nedic and Heidi Løken